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Sobanukirwa imvo n'imvano y’imyambaro yambarwa n’abarimu n’abanyeshuri muri kaminuza (Gown)

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:14/11/2019 12:40
0

Ni kenshi tubona abarimu n’abanyeshuli bambara imyambaro idakunzwe kwambarwa n'ubonetse wese tukibaza imva n'imvano yayo? Twaguteguriye amateka y'iyi myambaro ikunzwe kwambarwa ku munsi wo guhabwa impamyabumenyi n’impamyabushobozi n’abanyeshuli ba za kaminuza.



Ushobora kuba ugiye gusoza amasomo yawe muri kaminuza, cyangwa se waranayasoje. Wigeze wibaza iriya myambaro yambarwa n'abanyeshuri cyangwa se abarimu aho ituruka? Ibi, ntabwo ari ibije vuba aha, kuko iyi myambaro yahozeho, ndetse yaranakoreshwaga cyane. Mu gihe cyashize yambarwaga n’abanyeshuli buri munsi. Mbega byasaga nka kwa kundi umwana w’umunyeshuri aba agomba kujya ku ishuri yambaye impuzankano (Uniform) cyangwa umwambaro w’ishuri.


Hagati y’ikinyejana cya 12 na 13, niho amateka agaragaza ko hatangijwe kwambara iyi myenda, yambarwaga mu gihe za kaminuza zari mu matwara ya Kiliziya Gaturika. Byasabaga ko abanyeshuri bambara iyi myenda bagomba kuba biga ibijyanye n’iyobokamana, kwiga kwandika, ndetse n’ibijyanye no kuyobora. Ibyo, byakorwaga na bamwe mu bihaye Imana. Bigatuma ari nabo batangaga amasomo kenshi, kuko babaga barize.

Gusa bivugwa ko yambarwaga mu rwego rwo gushyushya umubiri, bitewe n’uko abayambaraga babaga bari mu mazu akonje, cyangwa se batari hafi y’ubushyuhe. Hanyuma bakambara icyo gikanzu, ndetse n’ingofero yayo ngo bashyushye umubiri.


Iyi myambaro yaje kugirwa ihame, ngo ikoreshwe nk’imyambaro ya kaminuza mu mwaka wa 1321, ubwo Kaminuza ya Coimbra yasabaga ko aba ‘Doctor, Bachelor, Licentiate’ bagomba kwambara iyo myambaro. Bivugwa ko iyi myambaro yabaga iri mu ibara ry’umukara kuko byagaragazaga agaciro ko kwiga. Gusa, kuko ibi byasaga nk’ ibikorwa n’ abihayimana, byaje gukurwaho n’ ubutegetsi bw’u Bwongereza mu mwaka wa 1858. Ubwo, ibyo kwigisha biba biretse kwiharirwa n’abihayimana gusa.

Mu Uburayi, hakomeje kugaragara impinduka nyinshi mu gushyiraho iyi myambaro. Bitandukanye n’Amerika, ho bari baremeje imyambaro, ndetse n’ amabara agomba kwambarwa bitewe n’ikiciro cy’amasomo ndetse n’icy’amashuri. Ibyo, byagezweho ku bufatanye na Gardner Cotrell Leonard wa Albany, New York. Bwana Leonard, yafashe icyemezo akorera abanyeshuri be iyi myambaro muri ‘Williams College’ mu mwaka wa 1887.


Bitewe n’ubushake bwana Leonard yagaragaje mu ugukora iyi myambaro, ndetse no kubikoraho inyandiko, yaje gutumirwa mu itsinda ryagombaga kwiga ku myambaro inoze y’abanyeshuri ba kaminuza, ndetse n’amabara yakoreshwa bitewe n’ icy’ umuntu yigamo. Iyi nama yateraniye muri Kaminuza ya Columbia mu 1895.

Nyuma yaho gato, mu mwaka wa 1932, Inama nkuru y’ uburezi muri Amerika yaje gusaba ko ibyemejwe mu itegeko ryo 1895 bigomba gusubirwamo. Ubwo nanone, mu mwaka wa 1986 haje gusubirwamo ibyemejwe mu 1932, haza kongerwamo ko ibara ry’ubururu bwijimye rigenewe abafite Impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga (Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy).


Umwanditsi: Muhawenimana Faridi-InyaRwanda.com








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