Inyarwanda art Studio
Kigali

E-commerce urufunguzo rw’ubutunzi, ubucuruzi bw’ikinyejana cya 21, Menya byinshi kuri ubu bucuruzi

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:22/08/2019 18:10
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Electronic commerce ni ubucuruzwi bukorwa hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga bwamamaye nka e-commerce. Ubu bucururuzi nibwo bugezweho, ni nabwo buri gukiza benshi bukaba kimwe mu byoroheje ubuzima bwa muntu akava mu kudandaza akagera mu gutumiza bikamusanga aho aherereye. Byinshi kuri e-commerce!



Muri iyi minsi benshi igihe kinini tukimara dukoresha murandasi mu kazi kacu ka buri munsi. Ibi byatumye inzobere mu bijyanye n’ishoramali bagandukira iyi nzira kuko niyo babonye ishobora kubinjiriza byihuse. Nicyo cyatumye ubu amasoko menshi yose yarimukiye kuri murandasi nka hamwe umuntu ashobora kubona abantu benshi. 

Uko iterambere rya murandasi rizamuka ni nako abantu barushaho kumenya ibyiza byaryo, ubu umuntu asigaye agura ikintu bidasabye ko ava iwe ahubwo binyuze muri imwe mu nkingi z’iterambere rya none izwi nka “digital economy” mu gashami kayo ka E- commerce cyangwa Electronics commerce benshi bari gucuruza ku rwego ruhambaye.

E- commerce cyangwa Electronics commerce ni ubucuruzi bukorera kuri murandasi benshi bazi nka “Internet business” ubu bucuruzi bugezweho kandi buri gutera imbere hirya no hino ku isi. By’umwihariko hano mu Rwanda abantu bamaze kubumenya cyane. Iyi nzira y'ubucuruzi yatangiye gukoreshwa ahagana mu 1960 ubwo abanyapolitiki batangiye gukoresha murandasi mu guhererekanya ubutumwa cyangwa inyandiko zimenyesha.

Gusa nta bucuruzi bwari bwagatangira gukorwa neza kuko muri iki gihe murandasi yari itarafata imizi. Hagati ya 1960-1994 ntabwo ubucuruzi bukorewe kuri murandasi bwari bwatangira gukorwa cyane, icyakorwaga kwari uguhana ubutumwa busanzwe ndetse n'ubundi bucuruzi butari buhambaye.

Agahana mu 1995 nibwo ubu bucuruzi burangajwe imbere n'ikoranabuhanga bukaba bwiganjemo ubukorerwa kuri murandasi buzwi nka “e-commerce” bwateye imbere aho bwabimburiwe n'ikigo cya Amazon cyashinzwe n’umugabo w’umunyamerika Jeff Bezos wabitangije akaba n'uwa mbere wakuyemo akayabo. Bezos yatangiye agurisha ibitabo yifashishije urubuga yari yarubatse, uyu mugabo yarahiriwe kuko byatumye atera imbere byihuse. 

Yakuyemo amafaranga kuko nyuma yo gutangiza ubu bucuruzi bw'ibitabo kuri murandasi, nyuma y’ukwezi atangiye byari bimaze kugurwa hafi muri lete zose zigize leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, nyuma y'aha niho ibigo bikomeye bindi bikora ubu bucuruzi byashinzwe twavuga nka eBay, Alibaba, Walmart, Taobao na Etsy.


E-commerce ikorwa gute? Haba hari ubumenyi bwihariye bisaba mu gukoresha E-commerce?

E-commerce ni ubucuruzi bukorwa hifashishijwe ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga bigizwe n’ibikoresha murandasi cyangwa ibitayikenera. E-commerce ubu iri ku isonga ku isi ndetse ikaba yaragize abantu benshi abakire. Ubu bucuruzi bwatangiye bwa mbere mu gihugu cya leta z’ubumwe za Amerika bukaba bukataje mu kuganza aho benshi muri twe dusigaye twumva kugendana amafaranga nk’ikibazo. 

E-commerce uburyo ikoramo ni uko umuntu ukeneye ibicuruzwa cyangwa uwo twakwita umukiriya akenshi ajya ku rubuga rufite ibicuruzwa runaka agahitamo icyo ashimye noneho bakamubwira amafaranga agomba kwishyura, byarangira akishyura akoresheje uburyo bamusabye. Magingo aya ubumenyerewe ni ubwo gukoresha ikarita ya bank runaka noneho iyo umaze kwishyura cya gicuruzwa bakubwira uko kizakugereho n’igihe kizakugereraho.

E-commerce kuyikoresha akenshi  buhambaye bisaba, kugira ngo umenye kuyikoresha bisaba kumenya ko ibaho ubundi ukamenya n’ibyiza byayo, urugero nta muntu wananirwa gukoresha TAP AND GO uko yaba ameze kose kuko byoroshye kurusha kujya kugura itike. Abenshi kugura itike hari n’igihe biba ngombwa guciririkanya ariko hano kuri tap and go ho igisabwa ni ugushyira amafaranga ku ikarita noneho logarithm iba iri kuri kiriya cyuma kirimo imashini ikozwaho ikarita kigakuraho amafaranga bitewe n’urugendo agiye gukora uko rungana. 

Nta bumenyi bwihariye bisaba mu kugirishiriza cyangwa kugura ukoresheje E-commerce abenshi babuzi nk'ubucuruzi bugezweho bukaba n’inkingi y’ubucuruzi bw’ikinyejana cya 21, mu bucuruzi bukorera kuri murandasi ikiba gisabwa ni ukumenya ko buhari kuko abubatsi ba program zikoreshwa muri ubu bucuruzi babukora ibishoboka byose ku buryo buri wese bizajya bimworohera kubukoresha.

Ese E-commerce ikwiye gukoreshwa na nde?

E-commerce ni ubucuruzi bwa buri wese ndetse bwa buri gihugu, nk'uko ikorera kuri murandasi cyangwa igakoresha ikoranabuhanga ryiganjemo ibikoresho biri electronics. Aha buri muntu uwo ari we wese yemerewe gukoresha e-commerce nta mupaka igira kuko benshi tugura ibikoresho bivuye muri Amerika cyangwa i Burayi ari uko twabibonye kuri murandasi nyuma tukishyura bakabitwohereza turi mu Rwanda cyangwa ahandi hose muri Afrika. Ikiriho ni uko ubu nta muntu udakoresha E-commerce kuko hafi y’ibikorwa dukora byacu bya buri munsi byiganjemo iri koranabuhanga rijyanye n’igihe ndetse iyi ni inzira yizewe ijya ku bukire. 

Mu minsi yanone ubucuruzi bwinshi buri gukorwa bidasabye gukora ingendo, aha twavuga abantu basigaye bicara hano mu Rwanda bakarangura mu Bushinwa batigeze bajyayo kandi bikagenda neza. Ibi ni nabyo biri gutuma abantu batera imbere mu gihe gito kandi bitabasabye ubushobozi buhambaye. Ubu igihugu cyateye imbere muri ubu bucuruzi kurusha ibindi ku isi ni leta z’ubumwe za Amerika ndetse n’ubushinwa.

Ese E-commerce mu Rwanda irakoreshwa? Niba ikoreshwa se ikoreshwa nande? Ese ayikoresha gute?Mu Rwanda Electronics commerce imaze kugera kure ndetse benshi bamaze gusobanukirwa n'uko ikora, ubu abacuruzi benshi ba hano mu Rwanda cyane cyane abacuruza ibikoresho by’’ikoranabuhanga ndetse n’imyambaro hafi ya bose bari kurangura hanze kandi batigeze bahagera ndetse hari na benshi bari kugurisha ibicuruzwa byabo bifashishije iri koranabuhanga.

Uko bikorwa, bo bavugana n'abaranguza bari mu bihugu byo hanze bakabereka ibicuruzwa bafite noneho nyuma bamara kubona ibyo bafite bakabihitamo byarangira bakishyura bakazabyohereza nyuma y’igihe gito. Inkindi, ubu kujya muri restaurant ni amateka kuri bamwe kuko umuntu asigaye yicara mubiro aho akorera akabasha gutumiza ibyo kurya igihe akazi kabaye kenshi cyangwa ari mu rugo aho atuye akaba yatumiza ibindi bintu akeneye.

Ubu mu Rwanda birashoboka kuba urimo gutegura uruzinduko ugafata telefone yawe ukaba wajya ku rubuga runaka ukareba imyambaro bagira ugatumizamo uwo wishimiye ubona ujyanye n’ikorori ugiye kujyamo mu minota 15 bikaba byakugezeho kandi byose ukabikora wifashishije ikoranabuhanga rishingiye kuri murandasi ugaseruka neza bitagusabye kujya guciririkanya mu masoko bishobora no gutuma wackererwa.

Uko ikoranabuhanga ritera imbere ninako ubu bucuruzi bujyanye n’igihe butera imbere. Magingo aya u Rwanda rutuwe n'abasaga miliyo 12 abasaga miliyoni 3.5 bose bakoresha murandasi umunsi ku wundi ndetse benshi banasobanukiwe n’ibijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga ibi binatuma igihugu kiza ku isonga mu bihugu bya Afrika bifite ikoranabuhanga rya ntamakemwa.

Ubucuruzi bukorerwa kuri murandasi bukoreshwa n’abantu benshi mu Rwanda ndetse na Leta ubwayo ibukoresha muri gahunda nyinshi igenera abaturage harimo nko kwishyura imisoro ndetse n’izindi gahunda za leta zishyurwa hakoreshejwe iri koranabuhanga riganje mw’isi hose. Aha twavuga nka serivisi ya 'Irembo' ikoreshwa muri gahunda nyinshi zitandukanyue.

Ese E-commerce yaba ikorwa buri gihe ari uko umuntu afite murandasi?

Ntabwo E-commerce ikorwa buri gihe ari uko umuntu afite murandasi kuko n'iyo ugiye muri restaurant cyangwa mu kabari ugasanga wibagiwe kubikuza amafaranga kuri mobile money, ushobora kuyabishyura bo bakaza kuyibikuriza. Ikindi benshi muri ino minsi abantu basigaye batakigendana amafaranga mu mifuka cyangwa mu makofi kuko utubari cyangwa abacuruzi bateye imbere basigaye bafite utumashini dukura amafaranga ku makarita. 

Icyo umuguzi akora ni uko we ajyamo agashyiramo ikarita ubundi akandikamo umubare w'ayo ari bubishyure, ibi byose iyo ubikoze ukabasha kugura ikintu ukoresheje igikoresho cy’ikoranabuhanga icyo aricyo cyose uba ukoze E-commerce kuko akenshi ibi bikoresho babyita ibikoresho biri electronics (electronics devices) ari naho hava izina ry’ubu bucuruzi “Electronics commerce”.

Ese kuki ibigo cyangwa abacuruzi bikorera benshi badakoresha imbuga(website) zerekana ibyo bakora? Haba hari igihombo bibatera?

Abenshi impamvu badakoresha izi mbuga zakagombye gukoreshwa mu kuranga ibikorwa byabo harimo ababa batazi ko zibaho cyangwa bacyeka ko kuzubakisha bihenze ndetse abandi bagatekereza ko nta nyungu bifite. Nyamara kugira urubuga ushyiraho ibicuruzwa byawe ni ingenzi kandi bifite umumaro munini cyane kuko muri iyi minsi benshi amakuru cyangwa ibintu bigezweho byose tubimenya tubimenyeye kuri murandasi binyuze ku mbuga nkoranyambaga. 

Kudakoresha ikoranabuhanga rigezweho biteza igihombo ndetse kinini cyane. Umunyarwanda yaravuze ati "uwabuze umuranga yaheze mu nzu kwa nyina” ni ukuvuga ko nta kintu cyiza nko kumenyesha abantu ibyo ucuruza kuko inzobere mu bucuruzi yemeza ko nibura mu bantu 10 bashobora kubona ibyo ukora, ntihazabura 5 bagura cyangwa bakarangira abandi bityo ukaba wabasha gucuruza.

Zimye mu nyungu zo gukoresha E-commerce1. E-commerce ifasha kugurisha kunatu benshi kandi mugihe gito.

2. Ushobora gucuruza ahantu hose ku isi

3. Ubu bucuruzi bufasha kumenya ibigezweho byose ndetse n'ikiguzi cyabyo

4. Ibicuruzwa biba bihendutse

5. Ikoreshwa mu kureshya abakiriya binyuze mu kuzengurutsa imbuga nkoranyambaga ibicuruzwa

Sources: shopify.com,ecommerce-platforms.com,medium.com na digitalmarketinginstitute.com

Igitabo cyakoreshejwe cyitwa "The business of the 21 century"








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