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Menya amateka ya Fela Kuti watangije Afro-beat agashakana n'abagore 27 akicwa n'iraha

Yanditswe na: Mbarubukeye Etienne Peacemaker
Taliki:26/03/2021 10:53
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Injyana ya Afrobeat ubu iri mu zikunzwe ku ruhando mpuzamahanga. Mu 2010 indirimbo yitwa ''Oliver Twist'' ya D'Banj yaciye agahigo ko kuba indirimbo ikunzwe muri UK Charts. Mu 2021 Burna Boy na Wizkid begukanye ibihembo muri Gramy Awards babikesha gukora umuziki wo muri iyo njyana yahirimbaniwe na Fela Kuti tugiye kubagezaho amateka ye.



Afro-beat ni uruvange rwa Blues, Jazz na Funk ndetse ukavanga izo njyana na Yoruba, ifatwa nk'umuziki gakondo wa Nigeria. Fela Kuti ubusanzwe yitwa Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti. Hari n'abamwitaga Fela Anikulapo-Kuti. Yavutse ku itariki 15 Ukwakira mu 1938, muri Nigeria. Yatabarutse ku itariki 2 Kanama mu 1997 i Lagos muri Nigeria. Ni umuhanzi akaba yarabaye impirimbanyi muri politiki. Uyu ni we Nigeria ya none ikesha kuba ifite umuziki amahanga yose yubaha (Afro-beat). 

Akora iyo njyana yari agamije kuzana impinduka aho yavanze Blues, Jazz na Funk ndetse akavanga izo njyana na Yoruba, ifatwa nk'umuziki gakondo wa Nigeria. Kuti ni umwana wa Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti. Akiri muto yize gucuranga Piano na percussion mu 1959, ayo masomo yayigiraga muri Trinity College London. Ari i London yabonye uruhurirane rw'imiziki mu gihe yabaga ari gucuranga piano mu njyana ya Jazz aho yabaga ari kumwe n'amatsinda akora Rock. Atashye muri Nigeria mu 1960 yashinze itsinda aryita Koola Lobitos, yanafashije kujya gucurangira mu Bwongereza (London). 


Fela Kuti ni we wambukije umuziki wa Afurika ugera i mahanga

Noneho rero ubwo iryo tsinda (Band) ryabaga riri gucuranga haje kuvamo Afro-beat. Mu 1969 yakoze izenguruka (Tour) muri Leta zunze Ubumwe z'Amerika yaje gukunda uburyo bw'imitegekere bwa Malcolm, Black Panthers n'abandi basirikare. Byaje guhindura isura umuziki we wivanga na politiki akajya aharanira impinduka yifashishije umuziki we. Indirimbo zirimo: Zombie, Monkey, Banana, Beats of No Nation na Upside Down ziri mu zamufashije kumvikanisha impinduramatwara ye. 


Fela Kuti yariye iraha naryo riramurya

We na rya tsinda baramamaye iwabo no hanze ya Nigeria. Ingingo baririmbagaho zarimo ukurwanya ubukene, ubushomeri no guca akarengane. Indirimbo ze wasangaga zitakirwa kimwe mu bategetsi b'abasirikare. Byaje kumubera bibi ubwo Leta yategetse guhagarika utubyiniro twe yaririmbiragamo. Icyo gihe ubwo butegetsi bwariho bwatangiye guhimba impamvu zamuta muri yombi agafungwa. Uyu mugabo yigeze gufata agace kamwe akita Leta yigenga ya Kalakuta Republic noneho we akaba umuyobozi w'ako gace. 


Fela Kuti yanywaga Marijuana

Yashakanye n'abagore 27, yakundaga ibikorwa by'ishimishamubiri byo mu gitanda (sex) ndetse yananywaga ibiyobyabwenge nka Marijuana. Mu 1977 ubuyobozi bwateye inzu ye  nyina umubyara aza kwicwa n'ibikomere mu mwaka wakurikiyeho bitewe no kugwa ubwo yahungaga abashakaga kubica. 

Yahungiye muri Ghana mu 1978 yaje guhindura izina yitwa Ransome. Mu 1979 yashinze ishyaka aryita ''The Movement of the People'' yaraniyamamaje akubitwa inshuro ataha amaramasa mu matora y'umukuru w'igihugu. Nyuma y'imyaka itanu yarafunzwe amezi 20 bamushinja gukora amafaranga y'impimbano. Afunguwe yavuye mu  bya politiki. Umwana we witwa Femi ni we yahaye itoroshi yo kumurikira Afro-beat. 

Umva indirimbo ya Fela Kuti watangije Afro-beat

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Fela yaongeye gufungwa mu 1993 bamushinjaga ubwicanyi ariko ibirego byaje guteshwa agaciro. Yaje kwicwa na SIDA. Fela ni we wamenyekanishije umuziki wa Afurika muri za 1960, yavangaga umuziki gakondo n'uwo mu Burengerazuba bw'isi (Western). Mu 1980 abakunda umuziki wa Afurika watangiye gukundwa i mahanga (USA&Europe). Amateka yerekana ko abanyamahanga batangiye gukururwa n'imicurangire yabaga iri muri iyo njyana akayivanga n'injyana zari zarakunzwe muri Amerika mu myaka ya za 1920 no mu 1930. 


Fela Kuti yakundaga abagore cyane dore ko yashakanye na 27

Mu myaka y'1960 ubwo Afurika yabona ubwigenge mu bihugu bimwe na bimwe ababaga bacuranga muri band batangiye guhindura ubutumwa bakajya baririmba gakondo (Folk tunes). Mu myaka yakurikiyeho uwo muziki wabaye ikimenyabose ku bantu babaga bagiye muri za hotel, mu tubyiniro. Abacuranga uwo muziki batangiye gusarura agatubutse kuko bajyaga bahabwa akazi buri munsi nibura amasaha umunani (8) ku munsi. 

Mu 1960 Dr. Nico yafatwaga nk'umuhanga mu gucuranga gitari (Guitar) yabashije gukorana n'amatsinda yo mu bwongereza. Abarimo Jimi Hendrix na Carlos Santana ni bamwe mu bamurikiye abakiri bato babakundisha umuziki wo mu njyana ya Afro-beat. Muri iyo myaka kandi wasangaga abanyamuziki bo muri Afurika yepfo (South Africa) barakoraga umuziki wo muri Amerika (Jazz). 

Abandi banyamuziki bo mu bindi bihugu byo muri Afurika bakoreshaga cyane umuziki wo muri Caribbean bakanavanga na Jazz. Umuziki wo muri Cuban wari warifatiye abakoreshaga igifaransa bo mu bihugu byo muri Afurika yo mu Burengerazuba (Western Africa). Amatsinda nka: Star Band de Dakar (Senegal), Rail Band (Mali) na Bembeya Jazz National (Guinea) yari mu yakunzwe cyane muri iyo myaka. 

Muri Afurika yo hagati (Central Africa) yarimo amatsinda: Grand Kale, African Jazz, Franco's O.K, Tabu Ley's African Fiesta (RDC), Les Bantous yari mu yakunzwe cyane muri iyo myaka. Buri tsinda ryabaga rifite umuziki waryo ariko amenshi yari yarabaswe no gukoresha imiziki yo mu Burayi no mu bice bindi by'isi. Johny Pacheco na Orchestra Aragon n'amwe mu matsinda yo muri Cuban nka Guillermo Portabales yari akunzwe. 

Muri Ghana y'icyo gihe E.T. Mensah bakoreshaga injyana zirimo Calypso, Juju yaje kumara imyaka 15 ikunzwe. Juju wari umuziki abawuririmbaga barangwaga no guhanika amawji mu mirya ya gitari na percusion ariko bagakunda gusingiza abacuruzi bafite agatubutse. Ebenezer Obey ni we wabaye icyamamare mu kuyobora amatsinda yo muri Nigeria. Fela Kuti nyiri gutangiza Afro-beat ni nawe wayimenyekanishije i mahanga. 


Fela Kuti ni we Burna Boy afatiraho urugero


Yari yarakunze cyane umuziki wa James Brown umunyamerika wavangaga Funk na Soul Music mu myaka ya 1950, 1960. Mbere y'iyo myaka byari bigoye kwambutsa umuziki ukarenga umugabane. Noneho rero ariko umuziki wo muri Afurika wari ukennye ku buryo inzu zitunganya indirimbo zari zifite ibikoresho biciriritse. 

Ibihugu bimwe na bimwe byo muri Afurika byari binagoye ko byabasha kwambutsa umuziki ukagera mu byo bituranye. Mu 1956 Miriam Makeba ukomoka muri Afurika yepfo, yabashije gukorana na Manhattan Brothers itsinda ryo muri Amerika. Indirimbo bahuriyemo yitwa ''Lovely Lies''.


Fela Kuti yarakunzwe cyane

 Nyuma y'imyaka11 yahungiye muri Amerika yari afite indirimbo iri muri 20 zikunzwe muri Amerika ikaba yaritwaga ''Pata Pata''. Nyuma uwahoze ari umugabo we Hugh Masekela yari umuhanga mu gucuranga Trumpet yabashije gukora indirimbo na yo iza mu zikunzwe ikaba yaritwaga ''Grazing in the Grass''. 

Mu 1973 Manu Dibango wo muri Cameroon yari umuhanga mu gucuranga Saxophone yakoze indirimbo iza muri 40 zikunzwe muri Amerika ndetse yagurishije kopi (Copies) zayo zirenga ibihumbi 10 muri Amerika. Mu 1958 indirimbo ya Kivela group Elias na Zigzag Jive Flutes yabashije kuza muri eshanu zikunzwe mu Bwongereza ikaba yaritwaga ''Tom Hark''.


Fela Kuti kumutundakanya n'abagore byari bigoye

 Mu 1980 umuziki wo muri Afurika watangiye gukundwa mu bihugu biteye imbere. Abahanzi barimo Mory Kante, Salif Keita babarizwaga mu itsinda ryitwa Rail Band, Youssou N'Dour wo mu itsinda rya Star Band de Dakar babashije gukora indirimbo zirakundwa ku ruhando mpuzamahanga. Kante Manfila amaze kuva mu itsinda rye yakoze albums zakunzwe, yigeze gukorana na Les Ambassadeurs Internationaux, ndetse yigeze no gukorera indirimbo muri Amerika. 

Mu 1987 Keita yakoze ''Soro'' iramamara ku Isi binamuhesha amasezerana na Island Records. Producer Sylla wari ufite inzu yitwa Syllart laber ni we ufatwa nk'uwahirimbaniye guteza imbere umwuga wo gutunganya indirimbo mu muziki wari ugezweho muri iyo myaka. Muri iyi nkuru ndende twarebeye hamwe amateka ya Fela Kuti watangije Afro-beat na bamwe mu bahirimbaniye umuziki ugezweho Afurika yishimira.

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