Airtel Rwanda
Kigali

Amateka y’inyeshyamba Jonas Savimbi

Yanditswe na: Niyibizi Honoré Déogratias
Taliki:29/05/2020 9:32
0

Jonas Malheiros Savimbi benshi bamenye nka Jonas Savimbi (wavutse 1934) ni we washinze UNITA (Ihuriro ry’igihugu riharanira ubwigenge busesuye bwa Angola) yabanje kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa Porutugali muri Angola nyuma aza kurwanya leta y’abasosiyalisiti iyobowe n’umutwe wa rubanda uharanira kwibohora kwa Angola (MPLA).



Jonas Savimbi ni muntu ki?

Savimbi yavukiye mu gace ka Munhango mu Intara ya Bié, umujyi muto uri hafi y’umuhanda wa gari ya moshi witwa Benguela, akurira mu gace ka Chilesso, muri iyo ntara. Se wa Savimbi yitwaga  Lote, yari umuyobozi kuri sitasiyo ya gari ya moshi ya Benguela muri Angola akaba n’umuvugabutumwa w'Abaporotesitanti mu itorero ryitwaga Igreja Evangélica Congregacional de Angola ryashinzwe kandi ryitabwaho n'abamisiyonari b'Abanyamerika. Ababyeyi be bombi bari bamwe mubagize itsinda ryitwaga Bieno of Ovimbundu, bamwe mu bantu babaye umusingi muri politiki ya Savimbi.

Mu myaka ye ya mbere, Savimbi yize cyane cyane mu mashuri y’Abaporotesitanti, ariko yiga no mu mashuri gatolika ya Roma. Afite imyaka 24, yabonye buruse yo kwiga muri Porutugali. Agezeyo, yarangije amashuri yisumbuye, usibye ko Atari yarize isomo "imitwe ya politiki" ryategekwaga ku butegetsi bwashyizweho na António de Oliveira Salazar, ku buryo atashoboye gutangira kwiga ubuvuzi nk'uko yari yarabiteganyije mbere.

Ahubwo yahise yifatanya n’abanyeshuri bo muri Angola no mu yandi makoloni y’Abanyaporutugali bari barimo kwitegura guhangana n’abakoloni kandi bagirana umubano n’ishyaka rya gikomunisiti ryo muri Porutigali kwibanga rikomeye. Yari azi Agostinho Neto, icyo gihe wigaga ibijyanye n’ubuvuzi nyuma akaza kuba perezida w’ishyaka MPLA na Perezida wa mbere wa Leta ya Angola.

Kubera igitutu cy’igipolisi cy’ibanga cya Porutigali (PIDE), Savimbi yavuye muri Porutigali yerekeza mu Busuwisi abifashijwemo n’abakomunisiti b’Abanyaporutigale n’Abafaransa n’abandi Bantu bemeye kumufasha yerekeza i Lausanne. Agezeyo, yashoboye kubona buruse nshya y'abamisiyoneri b'Abanyamerika kandi yiga ibijyanye n'imibereho y’abaturage. Nyuma yaje kujya muri kaminuza i Friborg kugira ngo akomeze amasomo.

Mu gihe akiri ahongaho, muri Kanama 1960, yahuye na Holden Roberto wari usanzwe azwi cyane muba rwanyaga ubukoloni. Roberto yari umwe mu bashinze ishyaka UPA (União das Populações de Angola) riharanira uburenganzira bw’umuturage kandi yari asanzwe azwiho umuhate mugusabira ubwigenge Angola mu Muryango w’abibumbye. Yagerageje gushaka Savimbi usa nkaho ataramenyekana niba yakwiyemeza guharanira ubwigenge bwa Angola muri iki gihe cy'ubuzima bwe.

Mu mpera za Nzeri 1960, Savimbi yasabwe gutanga ijambo i Kampala, muri Uganda mu izina ry’ihuriro União Democrática dos Estudantes da Africa Negra (UDEAN) ihuriro ry’abanyeshuri b’Abanyafrika birabura riharanira Demokarasi, rikaba ryari rishingiye ku ishyaka MPLA. Muri iyi nama yahuye na Tom Mboya wamujyanye muri Kenya kureba Jomo Kenyatta. Bombi bamusabye kwinjira mu ishyaka UPA. Yabwiye Abafaransa babazaga ibibazo ati "J'ai été convaincu par Kenyatta" ('Nemejwe na Kenyatta'). Yahise yandikira Roberto ibaruwa yishyira mu murimo we, bijyanwa imbonankubone i New York na Mboya.. Agarutse mu Busuwisi, Roberto yaramuhamagaye. Bahuriye i Léopoldville (Kinshasa) mu Kuboza 1960, bahita berekeza muri Amerika.

Ntibizwi neza igihe Savimbi yinjiriye mu ishyaka rya UPA, ariko Fred Bridgland wagiye wandika ku buzima bwa Savimbi, avuga ko Savimbi "yinjijwe muri UPA" ku ya 1 Gashyantare 1961. Nubwo bimeze bityo ariko, ashobora kuba atarinjiye muri UPA ku mugaragaro kugeza mu mpera za 1961.

Birasa nkaho bigaragara ko Savimbi atari mu ruhando rw’imbere rw’abarwanashyaka ba UPA mu ntangiriro za 1961. Nta ruhare yagize mu gutegura imyigaragambyo yo muri Werurwe 1961, nta nubwo yabigizemo uruhare.

Savimbi yagumye i Léopoldville kugeza mu mpera za Werurwe 1961, nyuma ajya mu Busuwisi kwitegura ibizamini. Ashobora kuba yaratsinzwe kuko yahise areka amasomo y’ubuvuzi i Friborg, maze mu Kuboza 1961 yiyandikisha muri kaminuza ya Lausanne mu by'amategeko na politiki mpuzamahanga.

Muri Nzeri 1961, Abanyafurika baturutse mubice byakoronizwaga naPorutugali bigaga mu mahanga bashinze ihuriro UGEAN (União Geral dos Estudantes da Africa Negra Sob Dominacão Colonial Portuguesa) mu nama yabereye i Rabat, muri Maroc. Na none, uyu muryango wafatanije na MPLA.

Holden Roberto na UPA bifuzaga ihuriro ry’abanyeshuri ryakifatanya n’ishyaka ryabo. Mu Ukuboza 1961, Roberto yayoboye inama muri Camp Green Lane hafi ya Philadelphia muri leta ya Pennsylvania. Savimbi yitabiriye iyi nama maze aba umwe mubateguye gushinga UNEA, (União Nacional dos Estudantes Angolanos) muri Werurwe 1962 i Lucerne mu Busuwisi. Savimbi yatorewe kuba umunyamabanga mukuru.

Savimbi yitabiriye ibikorwa bya UPA mugihe yari agikomeje kwiga mu Busuwisi. Yagiye agenda cyane mu izina ry'umuryango nko; muri Yugosilaviya mu nama ya mbere y’umuryango udaharanira inyungu muri Nzeri 1961 ari kumwe na Holden Roberto ndetse no muri New York mu nama y’umuryango w’abibumbye.

 

Mu gihe gito cyane, yari umwe mubagize Komite Nyobozi ya UPA. Niwe washishikarije PDA (Partido Democrático de Angola) kwinjira mu rugamba rwunze ubumwe na UPA, ashinga FNLA (Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola) kandi igihe ayo mashyaka yashingaga GRAE (Govêrno Revolucionário de Angola no Exílio) kuri. Ku ya 3 Mata 1962, Savimbi yabaye Minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga w’uyu muryango.

Ni gute yinjiye mu gisirikare?

Savimbi yashakishije umwanya w'ubuyobozi muri MPLA yinjira mu rubyiruko rwa MPLA mu ntangiriro ya za 1960. Yamaganwe na MPLA, maze yinjira mu mutwe w’igihugu uharanira kwibohora kwa Angola (FNLA) mu 1964. Muri uwo mwaka yashinze UNITA hamwe na Antonio da Costa Fernandes. Savimbi yagiye mu Bushinwa gusaba ubufasha kandi asezeranwa intwaro n'amahugurwa ya gisirikare. Amaze gusubira muri Angola mu 1966 yatangije UNITA atangira umwuga we nk'umurwanyi w'inyeshyamba zirwanya abakoloni babanya Porutugali. Yarwanye kandi na FNLA na MPLA, mu gihe imitwe itatu yo guhangana yagerageje kwihagararaho kugira ngo bayobore Angola nyuma y'ubukoloni. Nyuma Porutugali yasohoye ubutumwa bugaragaza ko Savimbi yasinyanye amasezerano y’ubufatanye n’abayobozi b’abakoloni ba Porutugali mu kurwanya MPLA.

Savimbi murugamba rwo gushaka ubwigenge.

Ntiyatinze gushyira ubumenyi bwe mu bikorwa bifatika nk'umwe mu bayobozi ba Angola barwanya ubukoloni bwa Porutugali. Savimbi ariko yakomeje avuga ko imyitozo ye nyayo muri politiki yazanywe no kugira uruhare mu guharanira ubwigenge ubwabwo.

Savimbi yashimiye umuyobozi w’igihugu ukomoka mu gihugu cya Kenya, Tom Mboya, bahuriye mu nama y’abanyeshuri mu 1961, amwemeza kwinjira muri politiki igihe cyose. Yinjiye mu mutwe uharanira  kwibohora witwa Umuryango w’abaturage ba Angola kandi mu gihe cy'umwaka umwe yagizwe umunyamabanga mukuru, nyuma aba minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga wa guverinoma mu buhungiro. Yababajwe n'ubuyobozi bw'iri tsinda, Savimbi yatandukanye nabo maze atangira gushyiraho urufatiro rw'umutwe mushya wo kwibohora wagombaga gukura inkunga nyinshi mu baturage bo muri Angola rwagati cyane cyane muri Ovimbundu aho Savimbi yakomokaga. Mu 1966, umurimo we wageze ku ishingwa rya UNITA (Ihuriro ry’igihugu riharanira ubwigenge busesuye bwa Angola) mu nama rwihishwa mu gice cy’ishyamba rya kure mu burasirazuba bwa Angola. Kuva icyo gihe, Savimbi yatangije urugamba rwa UNITA rwitwaje intwaro mu kurwanya leta ya Porutugali mu murwa mukuru wa Angola, Luanda.

Nyuma yahoo ubutegetsi bwi gitugu bwa Portigali bukuweho na coup d’etat ya gisirikare mu 1974, Savimbi yavuye mu ntambara y’inyeshyamba kugira ngo arangize imirwano n’abayobozi bashya ba Porutugali. Yasinyanye kandi n’andi mashyaka abiri yaharaniraga kwibohora kwa Angola mu 1975 yizeye ko iyo mitwe itatu ishobora guhurira hamwe ikayobora abenegihugu mu nzira y’amahoro nu bwigenge. Icyakora, ibyo ntibyashoboye kubaho. Intambara y'abenegihugu yaratangiye, Jonas Savimbi ahita yinjira muri kimwe mu bihe bitavugwaho rumwe mu buzima bwe bwa politiki.

Nyuma y’ubwigenge bwa Angola mu 1975, Savimbi yagiye buhoro buhoro yigarurira intekerezo z’abashinwa ndetse n’abanyabwenge baba ny’amerika. Yatorejwe mu Bushinwa mu myaka ya za 1960, Savimbi yari umurwanyi w’inyeshyamba wize cyane mu buryo bwa kera bw’aba Maoist ku ntambara, harimo no guhiga abanzi be imitwe myinshi ya gisirikare, bamwe muri bo bakaba barateye ndetse bamwe basubira inyuma babizi. Kimwe n'ingabo zibohoza abaturage ba Mao Zedong, Savimbi yakusanyije ingenzi, nubwo amoko agizwe n'ubwoko bw'abahinzi bo mu cyaro - cyane cyane Ovimbundu - mu rwego rw'amayeri ye ya gisirikare. Dufatiye ku ngamba za gisirikare, ashobora gufatwa [na nde?] Umwe mu bayobozi b'inyeshyamba bakomeye bo mu kinyejana cya 20.

Intambara y'abenegihugu.

Savimbi yakomeje iyi ntambara kuva 1975 kugeza 1990. Abanzi be bakomeje bavuga ko UNITA yari umuryango w’ibipupe mu maboko ya Afurika yepfo, ubutegetsi bwangwa cyane ku mugabane wa Afurika. UNITA yakiriye kandi intwaro n'ibikoresho byo kwa muganga biturutse muri Amerika ndetse n'ibindi bihugu byo mu Burengerazuba. Savimbi yavuze ko ashyigikiwe cyane n’abaturage bo muri Angola, cyane cyane mu karere ko hagati y’igihugu Ovimbundu atuyemo, abaturage bakandamijwe kandi biganjemo bagenzi babo bo mu majyaruguru mu gihe cy’ubukoloni. Intsinzi ya UNITA hakiri kare mu ntambara y'inyeshyamba yarahindutse. Rimwe na rimwe yagenzuraga hafi kimwe cya gatatu cy'igihugu, ariko ahanini mu turere tudatuwe cyane mu burasirazuba no mu majyepfo y'uburasirazuba bwa Angola. Iterabwoba rikomeye kuri guverinoma ya MPLA ni UNITA yangije umuhanda wa gari ya moshi wa Benguela, wari ukomeye mu bukungu bwa Angola.

Ni ki cyamuteye kujya gusaba inkunga muri Amerika?

Mu 1985, ku nkunga y'ubuyobozi bwa Reagan, Jack Abramoff n'abandi baharanira inyungu z'Abanyamerika bateguye Umuryango mpuzamahanga uharanira demokarasi mu birindiro bya Savimbi i Jamba, mu Ntara ya Cuando Cubango mu majyepfo y'uburasirazuba bwa Angola. 

Savimbi yashigikiwe bikomeye n’umuryango wo gusigasira umurage (Conservative Heritage Foundation). Umusesenguzi wa politiki y’ububanyi n’amahanga wuyu muryango, Michael Johns hamwe n’abandi baharanira inyungu zabo basuye kenshi Savimbi mu nkambi ye rwihishwa i Jamba kandi bamwubakira ubuyobozi bwa politiki n’igisirikare bikomeye mu ntambara yarwanye na guverinoma ya Angola.

Abayoboke ba Savimbi babarizwa muri Amerika amaherezo bagaragaje ko batsinze kugirango bemeza ikigo gishinzwe iperereza (CIA) kubashakira intwaro rwihishwa no gushaka inyeshyamba zo gufasha mu ntambara ya Savimbi yarwanye na guverinoma ya Marxiste muri Angola. Mu ruzinduko i Washington, muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika mu 1986, Reagan yatumiye Savimbi guhura na we muri White House. Nyuma y’inama, Reagan yavuze ku ndinzi ya UNITA ati: "intsinzi itanga amashanyarazi ku isi."

Nyuma yimyaka ibiri, intambara y’abaturage muri Angola ikomeje, Savimbi yasubiye i Washington, aho yari yuzuye gushimira no gushimira ibikorwa by’umuryango Heritage Foundation mu izina rya UNITA. Savimbi yagize ati: "Iyo tugeze kuri Heritage Foundation", ubwo yavugaga ku ya 30 Kamena 1988, yagize ati: "Ni nko gusubira mu rugo. Turabizi ko intsinzi yacu hano i Washington mu gukuraho ivugururwa rya Clark no kubona ubufasha bw'Abanyamerika ku bw'impamvu zacu. bifitanye isano cyane nimbaraga zawe. Uru rufatiro rwabaye isoko yinkunga ikomeye. Ubuyobozi bwa UNITA burabizi, kandi bizwi no muri Angola.

Imbaraga za gisirikare na Politiki

Savimbi yahuye n'abagize Inteko ishinga amategeko y'Uburayi mu 1989.

Yuzuza ubuhanga bwe bwa gisirikare, Savimbi kandi yashimishije benshi bitewe n’imico ye yuzuye bwenge. Yavugaga indimi zirindwi neza harimo Igiporutugali, Igifaransa, n'Icyongereza. Mu gusura abadipolomate b'abanyamahanga ndetse no mu ijambo yavugiye imbere y'Abanyamerika, yakunze kuvuga filozofiya ya politiki yo mu Burengerazuba n'imibereho myiza y'abaturage, amaherezo aba umwe mu barwanyi barwanya Abakomunisiti bavuga cyane Isi ya Gatatu.

Ubwo inkunga y'Abanyamerika yatangiraga kugenda yisanzuye kandi abayobozi bo muri Amerika baharanira icyifuzo cye, Savimbi yatsindiye inyungu zikomeye mu mpera z'imyaka ya za 1980, na none mu ntangiriro ya za 90, nyuma yo kugira uruhare mu matora rusange yo mu 1992. Kubera iyo mpamvu, Moscou na Havana yatangiye kongera gusuzuma uruhare rwabo muri Angola, kubera ko impfu z'Abasoviyeti na abanya Cuba zagendaga ziyongera ndetse n'ubutegetsi bwa Savimbi bwakomwzaga gukwira hose.

Kugeza mu 1989, UNITA yagenzuraga turere twinshi, ariko ibasha guteza imbere ibikorwa by'inyeshyamba ahantu hose muri Angola, usibye imijyi yo ku nkombe n'Intara ya Namibe. Amaze gutsinda mu gisirikare, mu 1989 na 1990, Savimbi yari atangiye kugaba ibitero ku biro bya guverinoma ndetse n'ibisirikare mu murwa mukuru w'icyo gihugu ndetse no hafi yacyo. Indorerezi zumvaga ko ingamba zifatika muri Angola zahindutse kandi ko Savimbi yashyizeho UNITA kugira ngo intsinzi ya gisirikare ishoboke.

Mu kwerekana impungenge z'uko Leta Zunze Ubumwe z'Abasoviyeti zashyize imbere iterambere rya Savimbi muri Angola, umuyobozi w'Abasoviyeti Mikhail Gorbachev yahagurukije intambara ya Angola na Reagan mu nama nyinshi z’Amerika n'Abasoviyeti. Usibye kubonana na Reagan, Savimbi yanabonanye n'uwasimbuye Reagan, George H. W. Bush, asezeranya Savimbi "ubufasha bwose bukwiye kandi bunoze."

Mu 1990

Muri Mutarama no muri Gashyantare 1990, Savimbi yakomerekeye mu ntambara yitwaje intwaro n'ingabo za leta ya Angola. Ibikomere ntibyamubujije kongera gusubira i Washington, aho yahuye n’abamushyigikiye b’abanyamerika ndetse na Perezida Bush mu rwego rwo kurushaho kongera ubufasha bw’ingabo z’Amerika muri UNITA. Abashyigikiye Savimbi baburiye ko gukomeza gushyigikira Abasoviyeti kwa MPLA bibangamiye ubufatanye bwagutse ku isi hagati ya Gorbachev na Amerika.

Muri Gashyantare 1992, Antonio da Costa Fernandes na Nzau Puna bavuye muri UNITA, batangaza ku mugaragaro ko Savimbi adashishikajwe na politiki, ahubwo ko ashaka gutegurara indi ntambara. Ku gitutu cya gisirikare cya UNITA, guverinoma ya Angola yaganiriye na Savimbi yo guhagarika imirwano, maze Savimbi yiyamamariza kuba perezida mu matora y’igihugu yo mu 1992. Abagenzuzi b’amahanga bavuze ko amatora ari meza. Ariko kubera ko yaba Savimbi (40%) cyangwa Perezida wa Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos (49%) batabonye 50% bikenewe kugira ngo batsinde, hateganijwe andi matora ya kamarampaka.

Mu mpera z'Ukwakira 1992, Savimbi yohereje Visi Perezida wa UNITA, Jeremias Chitunda n'umujyanama mukuru wa UNITA, Elias Salupeto Pena i Luanda kugira ngo baganire ku makuru arambuye y'amatora ateganijwe. Ku ya 2 Ugushyingo 1992 i Luanda, imodoka ya Chitunda na Pena yagabweho igitero n'ingabo za leta bombi bakurwa mu modoka yabo barabarasa. 

Imirambo yabo yafashwe n'abayobozi ba leta ntiyongera kuboneka ukundi. Igitero MPLA yagabye kuri UNITA na FNLA cyaje kwitwa Ubwicanyi bwa Halloween aho abarenga 10,000 mu batoye biciwe mu gihugu hose n'ingabo za MPLA. Avuga k’uburiganya mu matora ya guverinoma no kwibaza niba guverinoma yiyemeje guharanira amahoro, Savimbi yikuye mu matora arangije, akomeza imirwano, ahanini akoresheje amafaranga y’amahanga. UNITA yongeye gutera imbere mu buryo bwa gisirikare, izenguruka umurwa mukuru w’igihugu cya Luanda.

Mu 1994, UNITA yashyize umukono ku masezerano mashya y'amahoro. Savimbi yanze visi-perezida yari ahawe maze yongera kubura imirwano mu 1998. Bivugwa kandi ko Savimbi yikijije bamwe mu bari muri UNITA bashoboraga kwitambika ubuyobozi n’ibitekerezo bye. 

Umunyamabanga w’ububanyi n’amahanga wa Savimbi, Tito Chingunji n’umuryango we bishwe mu 1991 nyuma yuko Savimbi yakekaga ko Chingunji yari mu biganiro rwihishwa bitemewe na guverinoma ya Angola mu gihe Chingunji yari yarahawe imirimo y’ububanyi n’ububanyi n’amahanga mu Burayi no muri Amerika. Savimbi yahakanye uruhare yagize mu iyicwa rya Chingunji maze abiryoza abatavuga rumwe na UNITA.

Urupfu rwa Savimbi

Nyuma yo kurokoka abantu barenga icumi bagerageza kumwica, kandi bikavugwa ko yapfuye byibuze inshuro 15, Savimbi yishwe ku ya 22 Gashyantare 2002, mu ntambara yagiranye n’ingabo za leta ya Angola ku nkombe z’umugezi mu ntara ya Moxico, aho yavukiye. Munkongi umuriro mwinshi, Savimbi yakomerekejwe n’amasasu 15 mu mutwe, mu muhogo, ku mubiri wo hejuru no ku maguru,niko guhita apfa ako kanya.

Kuba Savimbi azwiho kuba amayobera kubera ko yanze ingabo za Angola hamwe n'abajyanama babo mu gisirikare cy’Abasoviyeti na Cuba byatumye Abanya Angola benshi bibaza niba raporo z’urupfu rwe zo muri 2002 zifite ishingiro. Kugeza igihe amashusho y’umubiri we wuzuye amaraso n’amasasu wagaragaye kuri tereviziyo ya leta ya Angola, kandi Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga ya Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika yaje kubyemeza. 

Savimbi yasabiwe mu irimbi rikuru rya Luena i Luena, mu Ntara ya Moxico. Ku ya 3 Mutarama 2008, imva ya Savimbi yarangijwe bane mu bagize ishami ry’urubyiruko rwa MPLA babigizemo uruhare barafashwe barafungwa. Umurambo we wataburuwe kandi ushyingurwa mu ruhame mu mwaka wa 2019.

Src: britannica.com&biography.yourdictionary.com






TANGA IGITECYEREZO

Izina ryawe
Email yawe
Andika igitecyerezo

Inyarwanda Art Studio

Inyarwanda Art studio
Inyarwanda BACKGROUND