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Amateka ya HIP HOP yakunze kwitwa injyana y’umujinya n'urusobe rw’ibitekerezo

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:2/05/2020 19:40
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Injyana ya Hip Hop kubera abantu bayiririmba n’uburwo bitwara, ikunze kwitwa iy'ibirara nyamara si ko biri ahubwo ni uko akenshi kubera ifitanye amateka n’ubucakara. Abaraperi benshi baba bagerageza kwisanisha n'uko abacakara babagaho mu kababaro n’uburyo bambaraga imyenda itabakwira.



Abantu benshi mu buzima bagira ibibashimisha n'ibibababaza, gusa bitewe n’amarangamutima ya buri umwe, umuziki ni kimwe mu byo umuntu ashobora kwifashisha mu kugaragaza amarangamutima ye. Iyo abantu bishimye baranaririmba bakagaragaza ibyishimo bafite. 

Ubwoko bw’umuziki abantu bakoresha buratandukanye, gusa reka turebere hamwe bumwe mu bwoko bw’umuziki bwatangiriye muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu gace ka Bronx muri New York kari gatuwe n’umubare munini w’abakene.

Mu myaka ya za mirongo irindwi (1970s), muri New York mu gace ka Bronx, kari gatuwe cyane n’umubare munini w’urubyiruko rw’abirabura b'abanyamerika (African Americans) n’abakomokaga muri Amerika y'Epfo (Latino Americans) harimo umubare munini w’abaturukaga muri Puerto Rico, Cuba (bagiye muri Amerika bahunga impinduramatwara zo mu 1959 hagati ya Fidel castro akuraho ubutegetsi bw’umunyagitugu Fulgencio Batitsa), biberaga munzu nto bitaga Ghetto.

Muri ako gace umubare mwinshi w’urwo rubyiruko bari abashomeri abenshi batunzwe no gucuruza ibiyobyabwenge. Muri ako gace ka Bronx muri icyo gihe hadutse ubujura bukoreshejwe intwaro bwakorwaga n’urubyiruko kubera ko umubare munini wabo nta kazi bagiraga.

Bronx, New York agace Hip Hop yataringiyemo

Inkomoko ya Hip Hop

Mu 1967 umugabo wakomokaga muri Jamaica bitaga Kool Herca (ufatwa nk'uwazanye Hip Hop) yaje kujya afatanya n’abandi bavangamuziki (Djs) aho twavuga nka: Africa Bambaataa, Grandmaster Flash, The Farious Five n’abandi benshi batandukanye. Kool Herca yaje kuba mu Burengerazuba bw’umujyi wa Bronx aho yaje kujya ategura ibitaramo, gusa yabonaga indirimbo yacurangaga abirabura bari batuye aho bataziyumvamo cyane ni bwo yaje kujya yongeramo hagati mu ndirimbo yacurangaga amagambo nabo bisangamo.

Yaje guha akazi abashyushyarugamba (MCs) babiri, icyo bakoraga bahamagaraga abavanga imiziki bazwi nk'aba DJs (Disc Joker) ku rubyiniriro basaba abari mu gitaramo kubyina, bavugira mu ndirimbo, ibyo babivugaga bagendera mu njyana y’umuziki mu buryo bw’ubusizi, aho ni ho haje kuva ibyo bise Rap. Muri ubwo buryo bavugaga ayo magambo baje kujya babivanga n’imbyino zabaga ziganjemo gukoresha ibice bitandukanye by’umubiri, aho uwabyinaga yasaga nk'uvuna ingino ze z’umubiri ari byo bitaga (Breakdancing).

Muri iyo myaka yaza mirongo irindwi (1970s), Rap yaje kumenyekana cyane muri ako kace ka Bronx ari nako habaga ibitaramo byinshi bitandukanye bitaga Discos. Abashyushyarugamba bakomeje guteza imbere Rap. Nyuma ubwo buryo bahuzaga kuvanga umuziki n’imbyino za Breakdancing niho haje kuva icyo bise Hip Hop. Mu mwaka wa 1979 itsinda ryitwa The Sugarhill Gang ryaje gukora indirimbo ya mbere ya Hip Hop bise Rapper’s Delight.

Clive campbell (Dj Kool Herca) ufatwa nk'uwatangije Hip Hop (Father of Hip Hop)

Ni irihe sano riri hagati ya Rap na Hip Hop?

Rap ni ubwoko bw’umuziki bufite injyana yiganjemo ubusizi, aho amagambo aba avugwa mu buryo bwihariye ariko ataririmbwa aho uyavuga aba agendana n’umudiho (Beat). Umudiho cyangwa Beat ikoreshwa muri Rap ufite inkomoko ku njyana ya Funk (Hard funk). Abahanga muri iyi njyana bavuga ko Hip Hop ari umuco ushingiye ku ngingo eshanu ari zo:

· Kuvanga umuziki

· Rap

· Imbyino ya Breakdancing

· Beatboxing: Ni uburyo bwo gukora umudiho (Beat), injyana ukoresheje umunwa hakazamo no guhindura amajwi mu buryo bunogeye amatwi.

· Graffiti: Ubugeni bushingiye mu gushushanya.

Ubugeni bushingiye mu gushushanya aho bihurira na Hip Hop ni uko umubare munini w'abakoraga Rap abenshi bakoraga n’ubugeni bushingiye mu gushushanya, aho wasangaga muri aka gace ku nkuta zitandukanye hariho ibishushanyo bikoresheje amarangi, bishushanyije mu buryo bw’ubugeni.

Imbyino ya Break dancing imwe mu bigize Hip Hop

Ni gute Hip Hop yaje kumenyekana?

Mu mwaka wa 1980 kugeza mu 1990 Hip Hop yagiye imenyekana mu bice bitandukanye bya Amerika, aho bamwe mu rubyiruko bagiye bakora indirimbo nyinshi zitandukanye zakunzwe ari nako havukaga abandi bahanzi bashya n’amatsinda atandukanye arimo; Public Enemey (Itsinda ryavutse mu 1982 rigizwe n'abasore batanu ari bo: Calton Ridenhour, William Daryton, Norman, Lee Rogers, Richard Griffin), Itsinda ry’abasore babiri babyinaga bitaga Security of the first world (S1W), Itsinda rya The Beastie Boys, Run-D.M.C, n’abandi bahanzi benshi batandukanye.


Public Enemy itsinda ryavutse mu 1982 rigizwe n’abasore batanu

Itsinda Run-D.M.C

Mu 1984 abagabo babiri Russell Simmons na Rick Rubin baje gushinga inzu itunganya umuziki ya Def Jam Recordings, yafashije abahanzi benshi batandukanye mu guteza imbere umuziki wabo. Mu 1986 ni bwo haje gusohoka Alubumu ebyiri zakorewe muri iyi nzu itunganya umuziki ya Def Jam Recordings zaje gukundwa zikozwe n’amatsinda abiri: Raising Hell y’itsinda Run- D.M.C, Lincensed to III y’itsinda rya The Beastie boys.

Izi Alubumu zagurishijwe amakopi menshi cyane muri uwo mwaka. Kwiyongera mu mibare w’abakunda Hip Hop cyane cyane urubyiruko rw’abazungu nabyo byabaye imbarutso yo gukundwa kw'izi Alubumu.

GANGSTA RAP yo ni bwoko ki?

Gangsta Rap ni bumwe mu bwoko bw’injyana ya Rap bwiganjemo imyandikire y’amagambo yibanda cyane cyane ku buzima bwa buri munsi bwo ku muhanda cyangwa abacuruza ibiyobyabwenge (Drug dealers).

Ubu bwoko bushya bwa Rap bwatangiye mu myaka ya 1990 (90s). Muri iyo myaka hagiye havuka abahanzi benshi n’amatsinda yaririmbaga ubu bwoko bushya bwa Rap aho abenshi baturukaga muri New York. Uburyo (Style) bwabo baririmbagamo babwitaga Hardcore rap, naho abo mu mujyi wa Los Angeles bakabwita G-Funk.

Mu 1994 umuraperi muto wari ukizamuka Nas yaje gusohora Alubumu ye ya mbere yise IIImatic yaje gukundwa cyane. Nyuma haje kuvuka abandi baraperi baje gukundwa cyane muri iyo myaka mu mujyi wa New York harimo nka: Puff Daddy, The Notorious B.I.G, Jay-Z na 50 Cent.

Muri Los Angeles naho hagiye havuka abaraperi batandukanye barimo nka: Ice-Taho wibandaga cyane ku bubi by’ibiyobyabwenge, na bimwe mu byaha bwakorwaga muri icyo gihe. Tupac Shakur nawe ni umwe mu baraperi bakunzwe muri iyo myaka, aho yaje gusohora Alubumu yaje gukundwa cyane yise All Eyes On Me mbere gato y'uko yitaba Imana arashwe mu 1996.

Hari amwe mu matsinda atandukanye yavutse muri Los Angeles twavugamo nka: N.W.A (Niggaz with Attitude)ryavukiye mu mujyi wa Compton muri Los Angeles. Iri tsinda ryari rigizwe n'abasore batanu aho mu ndirimbo zabo akenshi bibandaga cyane ku buzima bwo muri Ghetto, kutabona ubutabera (Injustice) n'urugomo rwakorwaga na polisi.

Ibi byatumye batarebana neza na FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) urwego rushinzwe iperereza muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, aho baje kohererezwa ibaruwa ibabuza gukomeza gukora indirimbo zo muri ubwo buryo. Nyuma yaho gato baje gutandukana buri wese akora ku giti cye.

Nyuma yo gutandukana, bamwe mu bari bagize iri tsinda baje gukundwa harimo nka Ice Cube wasohoye alubumu mu 1991 yise Death Certificate, na Dr Dre nawe muri uwo mwaka yasohoye Alubumu ayita The Chronic.

Itsinda N.W.A ryari rigizwe n’abasore batanu

Tupac Shakur umwe mu baraperi bakunzwe mu mateka ya Hiphop

Hip Hop mu Kinyejana cya makumyabiri na rimwe (21)

Hip Hop yaje gukundwa cyane mu kinyejana cya makumyabiri na rimwe, aho zimwe mu ndirimbo zacurangwaga ku mateleviziyo mpuzamahanga. Indirimbo nyinshi za Hiphop ziza ku myanya ya mbere ku ntonde z’indirimbo zikunzwe mu bihugu byinshi bitandukanye.

Hip Hop yaje kugera no mu bihugu byinshi bitandukanye aho twavuga nko muri Canada havutse abahanzi batandukanye kandi bakomeye nka Drake, mu Bwongereza (Dizzee Rascal). Abagore nabo baje guhirwa muri Hip Hop aho benshi baje gukundwa n’umubare munini w’abakunzi ba Hip Hop aha twavuga nka: Miss Elliott, Lil’ Kim, Lauren Hill, Nicki Minaj n'abandi.

Hip Hop yaje gukundwa cyane yifashishwa no mu zindi njyana zitandukanye nka Pop, aho abaraperi bagiye bifashishwa mu ndirimbo nyinshi. Aha twavuga nka See You Again y’umuhanzi Charlie Puth yafatanyije n’umuraperi Wiz Khalifa, iyi ndirimbo yaje kuyobora intonde z’indirimbo zikunzwe mu bihugu bisaga mirongo icyenda na bitandatu mu mwaka wa 2015.

Mu myaka y'1990 (90s) umubare munini w’abaraperi bavaka muri New York na Los Angeles wariyongereye. Nyuma yaho gato abo mu Majyepfo nabo baje kumenyekana mu 2000 aho twavuga nka T.I, Ludacris, B.o.B babarizwaga muri Atlanta, Three 6 Mafia muri Memphis, Bun B muri Texas, Lil Wayne muri New Orleans n'abandi.

Mu Burasirazuba bwo hagati naho havutse abandi baraperi baje gukundwa aho twavuga nka Marshall Mathers uzwi nka Eminem wavukiye mu gace ka Detroit wazamukira mu marushanwa yo kurapa akaba umwe mu baraperi b’abazungu batsinze ayo marushanwa. Undi muraperi waje kumenyekana muri ako gace mu mujyi wa Chicago ni Kanye West aho mu 2004 yaje gusohora Alubumu yise The College Droupout.

Eminen umwe mu baraperi bakomeye bakomoka mu Burasirazuba bwo hagati MidEast

Guhera mu 2010 hagiye havuka ubundi buryo (Styles) bwagiye buzanwa n’abaraperi benshi batandukanye aho twavuga abaraperi nka: Kendrick Lamar, Schooolboy, Danny Brown n'abandi benshi batandukanye. Hip Hop yaje gutera imbere mu buryo bugaragara aho abaraperi bagiye bahabwa ibihembo byinshi bitandukanye, bamwe binjiza amafaranga mu buryo bugaragara ndetse biza kugaragara ko Hip Hop atari umuziki gusa ahubwo ari n’isoko yo gukorara amafaranga.

Mu Rwanda, Hiphop yatangiye ahagana mu 2004 gusa ntabwo yakiriwe neza, gusa abayikoraga bakomeje gukora. Ahagana mu 2007 ni bwo bamwe batangiye kumva imirindi y'abaraperi nyarwanda, bigeze mu 2009 biba akarusho ubwo Itsinda rya Tuff Gangs ryazamuye ibendera ry’iyi njyana mu Rwanda bakora indirimo zirimo ubutumwa n'ubwo magingo aya bameze nk'abacitse intege ndetse n'abari gukora bakaba bakora biguru ntege.


Hiphop ni injyana yakunze kwitwa iy'umujinya kandi atari ko biri! 


Hiphop nayo irinjiza! Kanye West umwe mu bakora iyi njyana ni we uyoboye urutonde rw'ibyamamare bikize cyane ku Isi

Src; Britannica.com 

Umwanditsi: Dusabimana Soter-InyaRwanda.com






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