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Ese wari uzi ko ku isi higeze kubaho ba Papa (Pope) barenze umwe mu gihe kimwe?

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:21/10/2019 8:58
0

Ubusanzwe, Kiliziya Gatolika iba iyoboye na Papa umwe rukumbi, uba afite icyicaro i Vatican. Gusa, isi ntijya yiburira ibyayo, usanga abantu bamwe bateshutse ku nshingano baba barahawe.



Kuva mu 1378 kugera 1417, mu mateka ya Kiliziya Gatolika, habayemo icyamenyekanye ku isi nka “The Western Great Schism”. Ugenekereje mu kinyarwanda, ni ubwumvikane buke bwagaragaye hagati y’abayobozi ba Kiliziya, kugeza ubwo Papa nk’umuyobozi mukuru aretse kuba umwe, ahubwo bakaba babiri, yewe ndetse bakaza no kugera kuri batatu. Buri umwe muri aba kandi, yabaga afite abayoboke be, afite Abakaridinare (cardinal) bamushyigikiye ndetse n’aho ategekera hazwi. Wakwibaza uti byagenze bite?

Bitewe n’ibibazo bya politiki n’imiyoborere byari i Roma, byabaye ngombwa ko ingoro ya Papa yimurirwa mu gihugu cy’u Bufaransa, mu gace ka Avignon kuko umwami Philip IV yari yabisabye. Ubwo, Papa Clement V aba aje mu Bufaransa, Avignonatyo. Ingoro ya Papa yamaze imyaka igera muri 70 ku butaka bw’u Bufaransa kuva mu 1309 kugera mu 1377

Hagati aho, habayemo aba Papa bagera kuri barindwi ariko bose ari Abafaransa. Mu 1377, Gregory XI yaje kugaruka mu mujyi wa Roma, ngo yongere asubize icyicaro cya Kiliziya i Roma. Agezeyo, asanga Roma ntabwo irajya ku murongo. Bikavugwa ko yitabye Imana (Werurwe 27, 1377), afite igitekerezo cyo kwisubirira muri Avignon mu Bufaransa. 

Amaze gutabaruka, Abakaridinari barateranye, hanyuma ngo barebe ko hashyirwaho Papa mushya, gusa abantu i Roma bagasaba ko hatora umuntu ukomoka i Roma cyangwa se byibura ukomoka mu Butaliyani. Ibyo byose byarubahirijwe, kuko haje gutorwa Bartolommeo Prignano, ‘archbishop’ wa Bari, wari ufite inkomoko mu Butaliyani. 

Yahawe izina ry’ ubushumba rya Urban VIByari amahire kuko yari agiye no kuyoborera i Roma. Gusa, Urban VI ntabwo yaje gukorana neza n’abakaridinari be, kuko bo bari bamenyereye kugira imbaraga no kuvuga rikijyana nk’uko byari bimeze mu Bufaransa. Ubwo, bamwe bafata umwanzuro wo kugenda bakava i Roma. Ibuka ko, aba bakaridinari aribo bimitse Urban VI.

Nzeli 20, 1378, ni bwo ikizwi nka “Great Western Schism”, aricyo tugiye kwibandaho, cyatangiye. Muri Anagni ni ho gahunda zose zateguriwe. Ba ba bakaridinari, batangaje ko Papa Urban VI, uburyo yatowemo butari buboneye, ndetse ko byabaye no ku gahato. Ku bw’izo mpamvu, bahise bafata icyemezo cyo gutora Papa mushya aturutse muri bo. 

Ubwo baje guhitamo mugenzi wabo Robert wa Geneva ahabwa izina ry’ubushumba rya Clement VII, waje gusubizwa ku butaka bw’u Bufaransa (Avignon), mu 1379, ngo ariho ayoborera nka Papa mushya. Mu gihe Urban VI, nawe yari i Roma. Kuva ubwo, mu mateka ya Kiliziya Gatolika haba habayeho aba Papa babiri ndetse bafite n’aho bakorera hatandukanye.

Ibi, byatumya ibihugu bimwe bigize Uburayi bisa n’ibitatana, bitewe na Papa byabaga byayobotse. Urugero, nk’u Bufaransa, Castile, Aragon, Scotland, ndetse na Savoy, byari bishyigikiye Papa Clement VII. Naho uruhande rwa Roma ruriho, u Bwongereza, Portugal, Hungary, ibihugu bya Scandinavia, ndetse n’Ubwami bw’Abami Butagatifu bwa Roma (Holy Roman Empire). 

Kugira ngo rero iki kibazo kizakemuke, byafashe igihe kirekire cyane, cyageraga ku myaka isaga 40. Ubwo, Urban VI yaje gupfa, mu 1389, aho kugira ngo bareke Clement VII asigarane ikamba, Roma bahitamo kwimika undi mu Papa mushya ari we Boniface IX. Na Clement VII apfuye bimika Benedict XIII. Kutumvikana byarakomeje, buri gace kakajya gatora Papa mushya aho kureka ngo usigaye ari muzima ayobore. Mu 1394, abigaga iby’Iyobokamana (theology), muri Kaminuza ya Paris, batanze ibitekerezo byabo babona ko byatanga igisubizo kuri uku kutumvikana:

1. Kwegura ku nshingano kuri ba Papa bose, hagatorwa undi

2. Habeho ibiganiro bifite ubiyoboye

3. Hahamagazwe inama rusange, hanyuma ifate imyanzuro.

Ubwo, icyari gikurikiye ni ugushyira mu bikorwa inama bari bamaze kugirwa. Nk’aho ibyo bidahagije, yaba Roma ndetse n’u Bufaransa, nta na bamwe bigeze bashaka kurekura ubutegetsi. Ubwo, abakaridinari baje gufata icyemezo mu nama ya Pisa, bemeza ko hagiye gutorwa Papa wundi mushya mu 1409. 

Hanyuma, isi iba ibonye aba Papa batatu. Uyu, yari Alexander V, wayoboye kuva 1409-1410. Gusa, icyemezo cyo gushyiraho undi Papa, ntacyo cyatanze kuko yaba Roma ndetse n’u Bufaransa nta n'umwe watanze ikamba.

Kiliziya yisanze mu kibazo cy’abapapa batatu aho kuba umwe. Habayeho ko umwami w’abami w’ubwami butagatifu bwa Roma Sigismund, ahatira Papa wasimbuye Alexander V, John XXIII, ngo atumize inama i Constance, by’umwihariko ngo yunge abakirisitu bose, ndetse yige no ku byigishwa bya John Wycliffe ndetse na Jan Hus. Aba, baje no kuzira ibitekerezo byabo, byafashwe nk’ibitanyura ubwenge, ndetse bitanafite aho bihurira n’imyemerere ya Kiliziya. Bashyizwe ku biti, baratwikwa.

Inama y’ i Constance iratumizwa, abantu baraza, gusa Papa John XXIII atahuye ko bica amarenga ko ataremezwa nka Papa, yahisemo gucika inama idasojwe, yibwira ko biri buhagararire aho. Ibyo byabaye muri Werurwe, 1415. Gicurasi 29, John XXIII, aza gukurwa ku mwanya wa Papa, ndetse hadaciyeho igihe, muri Nyakanga 4, 1415, Gregory XII nawe yemera ko arekura umwanya wo kuba yitwa Papa. Bigenda bityo, no kuri mugenzi wabo, Nyakanga 26, 1417, Benedict XIII, nawe akurwa kuri uwo mwanya. 

Nyuma y’uko abo bose bava ku mwanya wa Papa, mu Ugushyingo, 1417, haje gutorwa Oddone Colonna, Papa mushya w’isi, ahabwa Martin V. Ubwo, indwara Kiliziya yari imaranye imyaka isaga 40, yaje kuvurirwa aho, irakira. Gusa, mu nyandiko zitandukanye, bagaragaza ko ibi, byateye icyasha n’isura itari nziza ku mwanya w’icyubahiro wa Nyir’Ubutungane Papa ndetse na Kiliziya muri rusange.

Src: Christian-history.orghistoryworld.netBritannica.comgreatschism.org

Umwanditsi: Faridi Muhawenimana-Inyarwanda.com








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