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Uko ubucakara, intambara n’ubukoroni byashyize indunduro ku Bwami bwa Kongo

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:25/11/2019 9:06
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Kongo ni ikimwe mu biguhu byigeze kubaho bifite ubwami butajegajezwaga bukaba bwarabayeho ahagana 1390-1915 gusa intambara z'urudaca, ubukoroni bwa karande bwaje gushyira iherezo kuri ubu bwami. Menya byimbitse uko ubu bwami bwari bumeze n’uko bwakoranye n’umwaduko wa gikirisitu ndetse n’uburyo abakoroni babushyize ku iherezo.



Ubwami bwa Kongo bwari bumwe mu bwami bugari bwari mu Burengerazuba bw’ Afurika yo hagati. Ukurikije inyandiko z’abanyaburayi cyane cyane Abanyaporitugale usanga ubu bwami bwarabayeho hagati y’umwaka wa 1390-1915. Nk'uko tubikesha inyandiko zo hambere, izina ry’ubu bwami rikomoka ku rurimi rwavugwaga n’abari batuye muri ubu bwami, rukitwa Kikongo (Igikongo). 

Ubusanzwe buri bwami bugira amateka menshi cyane, nyamara icyateye gukomera cyangwa se gusenyuka kw’ubwami ni byo bikunze kugaragara mu bihe by’ingenzi byaranze amateka y’ingoma. Ubu bwami bwaje gukomera cyane kubera ubucuruzi bwatangiye gukorana n’abanyaportugale, nyamara ntakitagira iherezo na bwo bwaje kugera ku iherezo ry’ubuhangange. Ese ni iki cyateye ubu bwami gutakaza ubuhangange bikagera naho twakita gusenyuka?

Ahayinga mu mwaka wa 1390 ni bwo ubu bwami bwa Kongo bwashinzwe. Amateka y’ubu bwami avuga ko bwabayeho nyuma y'uko imiryango migari y’abaturage bari basangiye kuvuga ururimi rw’Igikongo bashyingiranaga. Iki gikorwa cyo guhana abageni cyabaye nk’igihango ku muryango w’aba Mpemba Kasi n’uwaba Mbata ndetse bibongerera amaboko mu yindi miryango. 

Ababaye intandaro y’ishingwa ry’ubu bwami nyuma yo gushyingirwa ari bo Nima a Nzima na Luqueni Luansanze — umukobwa wa Nsa-cu-Clau wari umutware w’aba Mbanza — baje kubyara Lukeni lua Nimi bivugwa ko ari we wa mbere wiswe izina ry’umwami w’Abakongo. Uyu Lukeni lua Nimi yavutse hagati y’umwaka wa 1367 na 1402. Ubwami bwa Kongo bwaje kwanda ubwo abami babwo bagendaga bagaba ibitero bakigarurira andi matware cyangwa andi akabuyoboka kubera ubuhangange bwari bumaze kugira.

Ubukirisitu mu bwami bwa Kongo

Nzinga a Nkuwu ni we mwami wa mbere wahuye n’abazungu b’Abanyaporotigale, aho hari mu mwaka wa 1482. Nyuma y’imyaka umunani gusa umwami Nzinga a Nkuwu ahuye n’abazungu yasabye ko bamubatiza mu idini rya Gatolika nubwo iyo nkuru yatunguye benshi mu batware n’ibyegera bye. Nyuma yo kubatizwa akitwa umwami João I byatumye n’abaturage be nabo babatizwa ndetse bakitwa amazina y’amakirisitu. 

Umwami João I mu minsi ye yanyuma yahakanye batisimu ye bityo atera umugongo ukwemera gatolika yongera kwemera idini gakondo. Mu mwaka 1508 uyu mwami yaje gutanga asimburwa n’umwana we Afonso we wakomeje kuba umuyoboke w’idini Gatolika. Kiriziya Gatolika ntiyabayeho muri ubu bwami ku ngoma ya João I ndetse na Afonso gusa kuko na nyuma yakomeje kubaho dore ko hari n’abavuga ko ari ho hubatswe katedarare(cathedral) ya mbere muri Afuriya yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara.

Ese ni iki cyateye ubu bwami icyo twakita nko gusenyuka?

Ubwami bwa Kongo bwagize ibintu byinshi byatumye bugera ku ndunduro, muri byo twavuga: ubucakara, intambara, ubukene, ubukoroni ndetse n’ibindi.

Abahanga bagiye bandika inyandiko ndetse bakanacukumbura amateka y’ubu bwami bavuga ko bwatangiye gukora ubucuruzi bw’abacakara kuva igihe bwatangiye kugirana umubano n’abanyaporitigale. Mu ntangiro abacuruzwaga nk’abacakara bari abantu bagiye batwarwa bunyago aho ubwani bwa Kongo bwateraga, nyuma abaturage ba Kongo na bo ubwabo baje kujya bagurishwa. Icyateye iri gurishwa ry’abaturage b’ubwami bwa Kongo bakajyanwa mu bucakara mu Burayi na Amerika ni ukunanirwa kuerengera abenegihugu ku bazungu bashakishaga hasi hejuru abacakara.

Kuva mu mwaka wam 1568 kugeza mu1718 ubu bwami bwa Kongo bwaranzwe n’imvururu zagiye zivamo n’intambara. Zimwe mu ntambara zagiye ziterwa n’abashakaga ubwigenge kuri ubu bwami cyangwa hagati y’ubwami bwa Kongo ndetse n’abanyaporitigale. Muri izo ntambara hari izo tutakwirengagiza nk’aho aba Jaga bateraga ubu bwami hagati y’umwaka wa 1568-1570 ndetse n’iyatewe n’abashakaga kwiyomora ku bwami bwa Kongo bitwaga Soyo. Izo ntambara zavuzwe haruguru zabaye imwe mu ntandaro y’iherezo y’ubwami bwa Kongo.Ubwami bwa Kongo bwakomeje kugira amakimbirane hagati y'abanyagihugu. Hagati y'umwaka wa 1641 na 1718 abitwa ko ari bo bakomeje ubwami, aba Kinlaza ndetse n'aba Kimpanzu basubiranyemo bapfa ubwami. Buri muryango wumvaga ko ari wo watanga umwami, uyu mwuka mubi waje kuvamo n'intambara hagati y'iyi miryango.

Ahayinga mu mwaka wa 1913, umwami Álvaro Buta yagiranye ibibazo y'Abanyaporutigale bari batwaye Angola. Ibi bisa nkibyabaye intandaro y'iherezo ry'ubu bwami bwa Kongo. Uyu mwami Álvaro yashinjwe kuba yarateje ndetse agashyigikira ukwivumbagatanya ku Banyaporutigale. Twabibutsa ko aba bazungu bo muri Portugal ari bo bahabwaga imisoro birumvikana ko aba Bakongo baribafite impamvu yo kwivumbura. Nyamara ibi ntibyaguye neza Álvaro kuko yakuwe ku ngoma n'Abanyaporutigale birangira n' ubwami bwa Kongo bwometswe ku matware ya Angola.

Umwanditsi: Christian Mukama-InyaRwanda.com






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