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Amateka utamenye y’Umwami Faisal witiriwe ibikorwa remezo byinshi cyane ku Isi birimo n'ibitaro byo mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na: Soter Dusabimana
Taliki:1/09/2020 7:31
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Mu bihugu byinshi iyo umuntu yabaye intwari mu rwego rwo kumuha icyubahiro bamwubakira ikibumbano cyangwa se bakamwitirira ibikorwa remezo bitandukanye. Menya byinshi utamenye ku buzima bw’umwami wa Arabiya Sawudite Faisal Al Saud witiriwe ibikorwa remezo byinshi ku isi.



Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud yavukiye mu gace ka Riyadh ho muri Arabia Saudite ku wa 14 Mata mu 1906. Yari umuhungu wa gatatu w’umwami Abdulaziz. Nyina umubyara yitwaga Tarfa bint Abdullah bin Abdullatif Al Sheikh akaba yarashakanye na Abdulaziz mu 1902. Sekuru wa Faisal ubyara nyina yabaye umwigisha wa Abdulaziz mu bijyanye n’imyemerere y’idini ya Islam ni uko Abdulaziz aza kumukunda cyane amaze kuba umwami afata icyemezo cyo gushyingiranwa n’umukobwa we ni uko babyarana Faisal.

Mu mwaka 1912 nyina wa Faisal yitabye Imana, maze kuko yari akiri muto se yanga ko agumana n’undi mugore yahise ashaka, ahubwo amwohereza kubana na sekuru ubyara nyina Abdullah bin Abdullatif akaba ari nawe wamwitayeho akanamwigisha kugera akuze.

Abanditsi b’amateka benshi batangaza ko icyatumye Faisal aba igitangaza nyuma y’uko ahawe ikamba ry’ubwami ari uko yakuriye ahantu abantu bo mu gihe cye batozwaga kuba abanyembaraga no kuba intwari bakiri bato. Ikindi kandi kivugwa ni uko nyina umubyara mbere yo gupfa yahoraga amubwira ko amwifuriza kuzaba umuntu ukomeye byaba ngombwa akazasimbura se ku ngoma y’ubwami n’ubwo hari abandi basore bamurushaga imyaka se yari yarabyaye ku bandi bagore byagaragaraga ko hazavamo umwe wimikwa akaba umwami.

Faisal rero yakuranye ibyo bitekerezo nyina yahoraga amubwira bituma aba umunyembaraga uhambaye n’umuntu w’intanga rugero haba mu mico no mu myifatire. Ibi byamukururiye igikundiro kuri se umwami Abdulaziz no ku bandi bantu bamwe b’ibwami, ariko abandi bana bavukanaga kuri se batangira kumwanga kuko babonaga ari we utoneshwa cyane kubarenza.

Mu mwaka wa 1919 ubwami bw’ubwongereza bwatumiye umwami wa Arabia Saudite ariwe Abdulaziz ngo aze asure umurwa mukuru London banagirane ibiganiro birebana n’ubukungu n’uburyo ibihugu byombi byakomeza umubano mu bya Politike. Mu buryo butunguranye ariko, umwami Abdulaziz yanze kujyayo ahubwo yohereza igikomangoma Faisal wari ufite imyaka 13 gusa y’amavuko aba abaye umuntu ukomeye wo muri Arabia Saudite usuye ubwami bw’ubwongereza.

King Faisal

Umwami Faisal yatangiye kuyobora akiri muto

Ibi byatangaje benshi maze biba inkuru hirya no hino ku isi uburyo igikomangoma cy’imyaka mike cyane cyoherejwe mu butumwa bwa Politike. Byarasakuje cyane, kugeza ubwo n’abantu bari begereye umwami bamubajije icyamuteye gukora ibyo kandi hari abandi bantu bakuze banamenyereye ibintu by’ubuyobozi yari kohereza yo.

Umwami Abdulaziz yabatangarije ko yizera umwana we igikomangoma Faisal kuko yamubonagamo ubuhanga mu kuganira kandi anababwira ko n’ubwo ari muto cyane yizera adashidikanya ko mu ruzinduko yagiye mo azitwara neza cyane nk’uko we yabyizeraga.

Uruzinduko rw’igikomangoma Faisal mu Bwongereza rwamaze amezi atanu, atemberezwa ibice binyuranye by’ubwami bw’u Bwongereza ari nako ahura n’abayobozi bo mu rwego rwo hejuru I bwami. Avuye aho yanyuze mu Bufaransa naho yahahuriye n’abayobozi banyuranye b’Ubufaransa abaha ubutumwa se yari yamuhaye nabo bamuha ubundi asubirana iwabo.

Ubuzima bwa Faisal muri Politike

Kuko se yamukundaga cyane kubw’imyitwarire ye itangaje nk’umwe mu bahungu be, yatangiye kumushinga imirimo inyuranye agifite imyaka mike cyane. Kuko mu myaka yo hambere ibihugu byahoraga mu nkubiri yo kwigarurira uduce runaka n’ubwami bukigarurira ubundi hagamijwe kwagura ubuso bw’ubutaka, ni nako byagenze mu 1922 ubwo umwami Abdulaziz yahaga igikomangoma Faisal abarwanyi basaga ibihumbi bitandatu ngo ajye kwigarurira uduce twitwa Hail ndetse na Asir kugirango natwo badushyire kuri Arabia Saudite.

Mu mpera z’uwo mwaka Faisal ndetse n’abarwanyi be bari bamaze kwigarurira utwo duce twombi n’ubwo natwo twari dufite ubuyobozi bukomeye ndetse n’abarwanyi bahambaye cyane. Mu 1926 Faisal nanone yoherejwe kwigarurira agace ka Hejaz nako aragafata mu gihe gito cyane, ni uko se ahita anamugira umuyobozi wako kuva ubwo.

Mu 1930 yagizwe Minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga kubera ukuntu yagiraga urugwiro kandi akamenya kuganira akoresheje amagambo arimo ubwenge cyane, ibintu byakururaga abantu bose bamwumvaga kandi bakamwishimira. Muri icyo gihe yasuye ibihugu byinshi cyane mu buryo bwo gutsura umubano harimo; Poland mu 1932 n’Uburusiya icyo gihe bwari bukiri USSR mu 1933.

Mu mwaka wa 1953 umwami Abdulaziz yaratanze azize izabukuru, ni uko ubwami buhita bufatwa na mukuru wa Faisal ariwe Saud batari bahuje nyina. Iki gihe igikomangoma Faisal yahise ahabwa irindi kamba ry’igikomangoma gikuru (crown prince) rinamwemerera ko umwami naramuka atanze ariwe uzahita amusimbura.

Umwami Saud amaze kwima ingoma ntiyabashije kubana neza n’amahanga ndetse n’ubukungu bw’igihugu bwahise butangira kugwa. Imibanire ijegajega n’amahanga ndetse n’ubwoba bw’uko igihugu cyari kigiye kugwa mu rwobo rw’ubukungu butifashe neza, byatumye bamwe mu bari bagize ubuyobozi ndetse n’abayobozi mu idini ya Islam bari mu muryango witwa Ulema basabye umwami gushakira imirimo igikomangoma Faisal. Umwami Saud yarabumviye ni uko mu 1958 igikomangoma Faisal ahabwa umwanya wa Minisitiri w’intebe.

Faisal amaze kuba Minisitiri w’intebe yatangiye gushyira ho gahunda yo guteza imbere rubanda no kugabanya amafaranga y’umurengera umwami yakoreshaga mu bintu bitandukanye bidafitiye igihugu akamaro. Ibi byarakaje cyane mukuru we umwami Saudi, Kuwa 18 Ukuboza mu 1960 igikomangoma Faisal yatangaje ku mugaragaro ko yeguye ku mirmo ye nka minisitiri bw’intebe, ariko abikora mu buryo busa no kwigaragambya ashinja umwami ko adatuma ashyiraho ingamba zihamye z’ubukungu mu gihugu.

Dore uburyo uwari igikomangoma Faisal yahindutse umwami Faisal (King Faisal)

Mu mwaka wa 1963 umwami Saud yagize ibibazo by’uburwayi bituma asohoka igihugu ajya mu bihugu by’amahanga binyuranye kwivuza. Ibi byahaye amahirwe akomeye Faisal yo kwigarurira ubutegetsi maze ahita anatangira guhindura imyanya ya bamwe mu bayobozi abandi arabirukana, haba mu gisirikare no mu zindi nzego za Leta.

Aho umwami Saud agarukiye yasanze ibintu mu gihugu byarahindutse biramuyobera gusa Faisal ntiyagira icyo amuhingukiriza mu mpindika yakoze ahubwo amusaba y’uko yaba amuyoborera mu gihe acyoroherwa anafata akabaraga.

Ibi ngibi ariko Faisal yabiterwaga n’uko yari ashyigikiwe n’abayobozi bakuru b’idini mu gihugu, n’abandi bayobozi bakomeye cyane bahise banasohora inyandiko yiswe Fatwa yategekaga Saud guha ubutegetsi bwose umuvandimwe we Faisal, kuko byagaragaraga ko atagishoboye. Umwami Saud yarabyanze anagerageza gukuraho Faisal ariko ntibyamukundira kuko yasanze nta muntu n’umwe akibwira ngo amwumve. Ibi byavuyemo ko ingoro y’ibwami yari arimo igotwa n’abasirikare, we n’abandi bantu bake bari bamushyigikiye barafatwa ni uko kuwa 4 Werurwe mu 1964 Saud yemera ibiganiro by’uko Faisal yaba ayobora ariko asaba ko nakira azasubirana ubuyobozi.

Abantu benshi bakomeye i bwami bakomeje gukora amanama anyuranye y’uburyo Faisal yakwimikwa ku ngufu. Kuko rero kugira ngo umwami yimikwe uwo asimbuye akiri ho byasabaga ko uwo ushaje yivugira mu kanwa ke ko ubwami abutanze, ba bantu b’ibikomerezwa barongeye bandika indi nyandiko ihatira Saud kuvuga ku mugaragaro ko atanze ikamba ry’ubwami. Umwami Saud yabonye ntakundi yabigenza arabyemera ni uko kuwa 2 ugushyingo mu 1964 Faisal arimikwa ahinduka umwami atyo. Saud we yahise ajya mu buhungiro bw’igihe gito mu Misiri, nyuma aza kujya gutura mu bugiriki.

Ibikorwa by’umwami Faisal mu gihe cy’ubuyobozi bwe     

Umwami Faisal akimara kwimikwa mu 1964 yavuze ijambo aterura agira ati” Ndabinginze mwese, bene data, kava ubu mumpfate icyarimwe nk’umuvandimwe wanyu n’umukozi wanyu. Icyubahiro ni icy’Imana yonyine naho ikamba ryo ni ubushake bw’ijuru bugiye kwigaragariza mu isi.

Mu 1967 umwami Faisal yashyize ho bwa mbere umwanya wa Minisitiri w’intebe wa kabiri ahita awushyira mo umuvandimwe we bari bahuje se gusa ari we igikomangoma Fahd. Ibi bivuze ko igihugu cyatangiye kugira aba Minisitiri b’intebe babiri.

Mu ntangiririro y’ubuyobozi bwe yategetse abayobozi bose b’igihugu kutongera kohereza abana babo mu bihugu by’uburayi na Amerika kwiga yo, ndetse anabasaba kugarura mu gihugu abari baragiye kwiga mu buryo bwo guteza imbere uburezi bw’imbere mu gihugu.

Umwami Faisal kandi ni nawe washyizeho uburyo inzego zubatse muri Arabia Saudite kugeza n’ubu, anatangiza uburyo bugezezweho bw’imibereho myiza ya rubanda. Mu 1970 yashyize ho Minisiteri y’ubutabera anatora itageko rishyira ho intumbero y’imyaka 5 y’iterambere mu by’ubukungu.

Ikindi kandi yashyize ho amategeko mashya ajyanye no gutangaza ndetse no kubika amakuru mu gihugu kandi byose bikagendera mu murongo w’umuco n’imyifatire bya Arabia Saudite hagati mu kinyejana cya 20. Ku ngoma ye ibijyanye no gusakaza amakuru mu buryo bw’amajwi n’amashusho (Television broadcast) bwaratangijwe hanashingwa Televiziyo ya mbere muri Arabia Saudite.

Ububanyi n’amahanga ku ngoma y’umwami Faisal

Amaze kwima ingoma, umwami Faisal yakomeje kubana neza n’ibihugu byo mu isi harimo na Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika nk’uko se umubyara umwami Abdulaziz yari yarabitangiye ndetse anarusha ho. Muri icyo gihe Abanyamerika bamufashaga cyane cyane mu bijyanye no guhugura ingabo ze mu bya gisirikare.

Umwami Faisal yateye inkunga ibihugu byinshi kandi byo ku migabane yose y’isi atavanguye ku buryo abakuru b’ibihugu yasuraga cyangwa se akagirana nabo ubucuti basigaraga bamwirahira kubw’ubugwaneza bwe ndetse no gutanga imfashanyo igamije kuzamura imibereho myiza y’abaturage atizigamye. Yakoze ingendo nyinshi cyane ku migabane yose y’isi kugira ngo aganire n’abakuru b’ibihugu bitandukanye anabashe kubatera inkunga.

London
Uruzinduko Umwami Faisal yagiriye London mu 1967

Visit in Uganda
Umwami Faisal yasuye Uganda ku butegetsi bwa Id Amin Dada

Mu 1974 umwami Faisal yahawe akabyiniriro k’umugabo w’umwaka (Man of the year) n’ikinyamakuru Time magazine bitewe n’uburyo yari amaze gutigisa ubukungu bw’isi mu mwaka wari wabanje.

Ibyaranze ubuzima bwite bw’umwami Faisal wa Arabia Saudite

Umwami Faisal yashatse abagore bane. Abagore be bose babaga baturuka mu miryango ikomeye cyane aho muri Arabia Saudite. Umwami Faisal bivugwa ko yari afite abana 18. Umwami Faisal yavugaga neza indimi z’Icyongereza n’Igifaransa kimwe n’umukobwa we Lolowah.

Urupfu rw’umwami Faisal wa Arabia Saudite 

Mu gitondo cyo ku itariki ya 25 Werurwe 1975 ubyo yari mu gikorwa cyari cyahuje umwami Faisal n’abayobozi mu nzengo z’ibanze ndetse n’abaturage mu rwego rwo gukemura bimwe mu bibazo biri gihugu. Umwe mu bana wa murumuna we bavukana kuri Se, Igikomangoma Faisal bin Musaid akoresheje imbunda yo mu bwoko bwa Pistol yarashe umwami Faisal amasasu abiri imbere ya rubanda.

Nyuma yo kuraswa Umwami Faisal yahise ajyanwa mu bitaro byari hafi aho kwitabwaho n’abaganga ariko nyuma y’amasaha macye yahise atanga azize guhagarara ku mutima. Nyuma y’urupfu rw’umwami Faisal, igihugu cyose cyahise kijya mu cyunamo cy’iminsi itatu aho ibikorwa byose bya Leta byari byahagaze.

Ikintu kivugwa ko ari cyo cyateye kiriya gikomangoma kwivugana umwami, ngo ni uko mu mwaka wa 1966 ubwo Television ya mbere yafungurwaga muri Arabia Saudite, uwitwaga igikomangoma Khalid bin Musaid umuvandimwe we yagerageje guteza rwaserera muri ibyo birori maze inzego zishinzwe umutekano zikamurasa agapfa. Iki gikomangoma cyaje guhamwa n’icyaha cyo kwica umwami nyuma ahabwa igihano cy’urupfu.

Ku itariki ya 26 Werurwe mu 1975 umugogo w’umwami Faisal washyinguwe mu mva yitwa Al Qud cementary nayo iri mu murwa mukuru wa Arabia Saudite Riyadh, ahari abantu batabarika baturutse hirya no hino ku isi.

Dore bimwe mu bintu binyuranye byitiriwe umwami Faisal

Mu mwaka wa 1979 umugi wa gatatu mu bunini mu gihugu cya Pakistan wahawe izina rya Faisalabad aribyo bishatse kuvuga umujyi wa Faisal. Aha muri Pakistan kandi mu ntara yitwa Sindh mu mugi wa Karach hari ikibuga k’indege za gisirikare kinini cyane cyahawe izina rya PAF Base Faisal ari byo kuvuga Pakistan Air Force Base Faisal mu rwego rwo guha icyubahiro umwami Faisal kubw’inkunga ikomeye yateye icyo gihugu mu nzego zinyuranye hari mo n’ibya gisirikare.

Mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 1994 i Kigali mu Rwanda huzuye ibitaro byitiriwe umwami Faisal bikaba ari bimwe mu bitaro by’ikitegererezo mu gihugu. Ibi nabyo rero byubatswe mu mafaranga umwami Faisal yasize mu kigega cyamwitiriwe, ategeka ko azafasha u Rwanda mu bijyanye n’ubuzima.

King Faisal  Hospital
Ibitaro byitiriwe Umwami Faisal i Kigali

Mu guhugu cya Ghana hari ikipe y’umupira w’amaguru yitwa King Faisal Babes F.C yashinzwe n’uyu mwami Faisal binyuze mu nkunga yahaye iki gihugu ngo yifashishwe  muri Siporo by’umwihariko mu kuzamura impano z’abana bakiri bato.

Mu murwa mukuru nyobokamana ku idini ya Islam Mecca cyangwa se Maka hari ibitaro nanone byitiriwe umwami Faisal (King Faisal hospital, Mecca)

Mu gihugu cya Pakistan hari umusigiti witiriwe umwami Faisal (King Faisal Mosque)

Mu gihugu cya Leta zunze ubumwe z’abarabu (UAE) mu mujyi witwa Sharjah hari undi musigiti witiriwe umwani Faisal

Nyuma y’ibi byose hari ama kaminuza, ibigo by’ubushakashatsi, imihanda n’ibindi bikorwa remezo byinshi cyane mu bihugu bitandukanye ku isi byitiriwe umwami Faisal bitewe n’imibanire myiza yagiranye n’abayobozi b’ibihugu, cyangwa se bitewe n’inkunga yateye ibyo bihugu biciye mu bigega nterankunga yari yarashinze.

 

Src: History & House of Saud






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