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Menya itandukaniro riri hagati y’ibisasu kirimbuzi byo mu bwoko bwa Atomic bombs na Hydrogen bombs

Yanditswe na: Soter Dusabimana
Taliki:10/08/2020 13:14
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Ibisasu bya kirimbuzi byo mu bwoko bwa Atomic bomb ni bimwe mu byateje ingaruka zikomeye mu Buyapani, uko tekinoloji itera imbere niko hirya no hino ku isi hacurwa intwaro z'ubumara zishobora no kurangiza ikiremwamuntu ku isi dutuye.



Ku itariki ya 6 Kanama mu 1945 igihe intambara ya 2 y’isi yari irimbanyije abanyamerika bateye igisasu bahaye izina ry’agahungu gato (Little boy) mu mujyi wa Hiroshima mu Buyapani. Nyuma y’iminsi itatu, ni ukuvuga ku itariki ya 9 Kanama mu 1945 ikindi gisasu cyahawe izina ry’umugabo ubyibushye (Fat man) cyatewe mu wundi mujyi witwa Nagasaki ho mu Buyapani n’ubundi. Ibi bisasu byombi byahitanye abantu babarirwa mu 200,000 barimo abasirikare n’abaturage basanzwe.

Ingaruka z’ibi bisasu zahitanye benshi mu myaka yakurikiye iraswa ryabyo kuri iriya mijyi, hakaba hari n’abashakashatsi bahamya ko ubumara bw’ibi bisasu bwaba bwarahinduye uturema ngingo fatizo (genes) twa bamwe mu baturage b’u Buyapani, bakaba rero kugeza n’ubu hari ibibazo bagihura nabyo kubera biriya bisasu. Magingo aya baracyahanganye n’ingaruka zabyo kandi bimaze imyaka myinshi bitewe, ngo ni ukubera ubumara bwabyo bwaba buhererekanywa mu maraso igisekuru ku kindi.

Ibi bisasu byombi byatewe mu Buyapani biri mu bwoko bw’ibyitwa Atomic bombs bikaba byaratangariwe na benshi kubera ubukana bwabyo. Gusa mu myaka yakurikiye intambara ya 2 y’isi, ibihugu by’ibihangange ku isi byakomeje gucukura ku bwinshi bene ibi bisasu mu buryo nyine bwo guhigana ubutwari no kugaragaza ubukaka imbere y’amahanga. Uko iterambere ryagiye rikura ibihugu byagiye byiga uburyo noneho byakora ibisasu birengeje ubukana biriya bya Atomic bombs.

little boy

Igisasu cyiswe agasore gato (little boy) cyatewe mu mujyi wa Hiroshima mu Buyapani

Ibisasu byacuzwe nyuma bikagaragara ko birushije imbaraga Atomic bombs ni ibyitwa Hydrogen Bombs. Tugiye kurebera hamwe rero ikorana buhanga riri muri aya moko abiri y’ibisasu, aho bihuriye n’aho bitandukaniye.

Dore ibyo ibisasu bya Hydrogen bombs n’ibya Atomic bombs byombi bihuriye ho

Ubu bwoko bwombi bw’bisasu bukorwa hifashishijwe uburyo bwo guhuza cyangwa se gucagagura umutima w’imbere(nucleas) w’ibinyabutabire runaka byabugenewe, ubu buryo bukaba bizwi ku izina rya nuclear reactions mu bijyanye n’ubutabire (chemistry). Iyo bari gucagagura uriya mutima w’imbere (nucleas) w’ikinyabutabire cyangwa se bari gufatanya imitima myinshi y’ibinyabutabire bakayihuriza hamwe, byombi bitanga imbaraga nyinshi cyane kandi mu gihe gito, arizo zivamo ririya turika tubonesha amaso yacu, ndetse n’ukwangirika kw’ibintu runaka.

Ibi bisasu byose rero bifite ubushobozi bwo kwica abantu benshi mu gihe gito cyane cyangwa se mu gihe kirekire bitewe n’imirasire yangiza ikomeza kugaragara aho byatewe. Ikindi kandi, ibishashi byabyo biba bifite ingufu nyinshi ku buryo bishobora gusenya amazu ndetse n’ibikorwa remezo nk’imihanda n’ibindi.

1.      Imikorere y’ibisasu byo mu bwoko bwa Atomic bombs

Uburyo ibi bisasu biturika, byifashisha uburyo byo gushwanyaguza umutima w’imbere(nucleas) w’ibinyabutabire runaka, wamara gushwanyuka ukabyara utundi duce duto, utu natwo iyo dushwanyutse tubyara utundi twinshi cyane gutyo gutyo kugera ubwo iturika rirangiye bitewe n’ubukana ndetse n’ubunini icyo gisasu cyakoranywe. Uru ruhererekane rw’iturika (chain reaction) by’utu duce tw’umutima w’ibinyabutabire runaka twitwa Nuclear fission, niyo mpamvu ibi bisasu nabyo bashobora no kubyita Fission bombs.

Mu binyabutabire byifashishwa cyane mu gucura ibi bisasu bya Atomic bombs harimo ikinyabutabire cya Uranium cyahawe umubare wa 235 (Uranium-235), ikinyabutabire cya Plutonium cyahawe umubare wa 239 (Plutonium-239), cyangwa se rimwe na rimwe bagakoresha Uranium yahawe umubare wa 233 cyangwa se Neptunium 237. Ibi binyabutabire byose bakoresha harimo ibiragaragara mu buzima busanzwe kuko bicukurwa hirya no hino ku isi cyangwa se bakabikorera mu mazu yabugenewe.

Dore rero uburyo ibisasu bya Atomic bombs bibasha guturika hakoreshejwe uburyo bwa Nuclear fission

Nkuko umuntu agizwe n’ingingo z’umubiri wenda nk’amaboko, izo ngingo nazo ziba zigizwe n’ibice runaka aha twavuga nk’intoki ku maboko. Ibyo bice nabyo bikaba bigizwe n’utundi turema ngingo(cells) duto cyane tutaboneshwa ijisho tukaba dukorerwa mo imirimo y’ibanze ituma umuntu cyangwa se ikindi kiremwa kibaho.

Ibi ninako biba bimeze ku kinyabutabire(element) icyo ari cyo cyose aho wenda twavuga nk’umwuka wa Oxygene duhumeka cyangwa se Uranium ikoreshwa mu gukora ibisasu kirimbuzi bya Atomic bombs.

Iyi Uranium iba igizwe n’uduce duto cyane twitwa Atoms natwo tuba tugizwe n’uduce dutatu tw’ingezi ari two:

 -Uduce abahanga bagaragaza bakoresheje ikimenyetso cyo guteranya tukaba twitwa Proton, hamwe n’utundi tutagira ikimenyetso abahanga mu by’ubutabire bahaye izina rya Neutrons bisobanuye ko ntaho tubogamiye kuko nta kimenyetso tugira. Utu duce twombi rero twitwa Proton na Neutron tuba turi mu mutima w’imbere(nucleas) wa Atom.

-Utundi duce twa gatatu twa Uranium ni uduce duto abahanga bagaraza bakoresheje ikimenyetso cyo gukuramo twitwa Electrons, two tukaba tuzenguruka inyuma ya wa mutima w’imbere wa Atom ariwo Nucleas.

Iyo rero indege irashe igisasu cyo mu bwoko bwa Atomic bomb cyangwa se kigafungurwa ngo cyemererwe guturika, haba ibintu byinshi cyane byasobanurwa mu magambo menshi, ariko icy’ingenzi ni uko kamwe mu duce duto cyane(Atom) twa Uranium iba ikoze icyo gisasu gahita gashwanyuka. Muri uko gushwanyuka za Neutrons zitagira ikimenyetso ziba ziri mu mutima imbere zihita zihuta n’umuvuduko mwishi cyane zikajya gushwanyuza udutima tw’izindi Atoms.

Iyo bigenze gutya izo atoms zishwanyutse bundi bushya nazo zishwanyura izindi gutyo gutyo, ku buryo igisasu kimwe gishobora gukwira umugi wose ari uduce duto tugenda duturika natwo dugaturitsa utundi.  Iryo turika ry’uduce duto cyane(Atoms) tutaboneshwa ijisho tw’igisasu ritanga ingufu nyinshi cyane zigaragarira amaso mu buryo bw’umuriro utwika ndetse n’imirasire yangiza buri kintu cyose inyuzemo.  


Igishushanyo kigaragaza uburyo umutima w’imbere(Nucleas) wa Uranium(U) uturitswa na Neutrons bikaza gutanga ingufu zishobora kwangiza mu buryo bw’uruhererekane

Iyi mibare bagenda bashyira ku nyuguti ya U isobanura ubutare bwa Uranium yerekana amoko (isotopes) y’ikinyabutabire kimwe aba atanganya ubushobozi cyangwa se atanateye kimwe. Nk’ubutare bwa Uranium bushobora kugira amoko menshi akaba yakwifashishwa mu bintu bitandukanye bitewe n’ubushobozi bwa buri bwoko, niyo mpamvu kugira ngo bayatandukanye abahanga mu by’ubutabire bicaye bakayaha imibare igiye inyuranye bagendeye ku bintu byinshi kandi mu buryo bw’ubwumvikane.

2.      Imikorere y’ibisasu byo mu bwoko bwa Hydrogen bombs

Mu iturika ry’ibi bisasu byifashisha icyarimwe uburyo bwo gushwanyuza umutima w’imbere w’ikinyabutabire runaka (nuclear fission) ndetse no guhuza udutima twinshi (nucleas) tw’amoko y’ikinyabutabire kimwe (isotopes) cyangwa se guhuza udutima twinshi tw’ibinyabutabire byinshi binyuranye; ari byo mu butabire bita Nuclear Fusion. Ibinyabutabire bikunze kwifashishwa mu gukora ibi bisasu harimo: amoko anyuranye (isotopes) y’ikinyabutabire cya Hydrogene ari yo Tritium ndetse na Deuterium. Iyi Hydrogene ikurwa mu mwuka usanzwe, cyangwa se igakorwa mu mazu yagenewe iby’ubutabire (laboratories)

Igisasu cyo mu bwoko bwa Hydrogene kiri mu bubiko

  

Guturika mu buryo bwa Nuclear fusion bigenda gute?

Nk'uko twamaze kubona hejuru mu buryo bwa Nucleas fission ibisasu bya Atomic bombs biturika mo, guturika mu buryo bwa Nucleas fusion kw’ibisasu bya Hydrogen bombs byo bibaho hifashishijwe amoko anyuranye (isotopes) y’ikinyabutabire cya hydrogene nk'uko izina ry’igisasu (hydrogen bomb) ribivuga.


Igishushanyo kigaragaza uburyo amoko anyuranye(isotopes) ya Hydrogene asekurana bigatanga iturika ry’ingufu zihambaye

Iyo amoko abiri bakoresha ya Hydrogene ariyo deteurium na Tritium asekuranye, udutima twayo(nucleas) turashwanyuka bikabyara uduce twitwa Neutrons tumwe tutagira ikimenyetso n’ikindi kinyabutabire kitwa helium, hakiyongeraho n’ingufu nyinshi cyane ku gishushanyo bise Energy ziruta iziboneka mu buryo bwa nucleas fission bukoreshwa muri Atomic bombs.

Dore rero uburyo ibisasu byo mu bwoko bwa Hydrogen bombs bibasha guturika hakoreshejwe uburyo bwa nuclear fission hamwe na nuclear fusion icyarimwe

Hejuru mu gasongero ka Bombe yo mu bwoko bwa Hydrogene ni ho habera iturika twabonye ryitwa Nuclear fission, rikaba ari ryo ribanza kuba iyo imbarutso y’iki gisasu ikimara gukururwa. Iyo iryo turika rirangiye imirasire myinshi ishyushye cyane ihita imanuka igatwika igice cyo hasi cyo kibera mo Nuclear fusion, noneho igisasu cyose kigasandara, rwa ruhererekane rw’uko uduce tugenda dutera utundi guturika rugakomeza kugeza ubwo ingufu cyakoranywe zirangiye.


Igishushanyo kigaragaza intambwe ku ntambwe uburyo igisasu cya Hydrogene giturika

Mu gishushanyo cya 1(hejuru) barerekana uburyo hejuru mu gasongero k’igisasu ibinyabutabire baba bashyizemo bishya mu buryo bwa Fission, noneho mu gishushanyo cya 2 bakerekana uburyo ingufu zivuye hejuru zijya gutwika igice cyo hasi.

Ku gishushanyo cya gatatu barerekana uburyo igice cyo hasi kiberamo Nuclear fusion gitangira gushya maze mu gishushanyo cya 4 bakerekana igice cyo hasi na cyo gituritse. Ibi byose tumaze kubona biba mu gihe kingana n’ibice 6000 by’isegonda ku buryo mbese bitaboneshwa amaso kuko nyine n’isegonda rimwe rituzura kikaba cyasandaye.

Exploision

 Igisasu cyo mu bwoko bwa Hydrogene kigira ubukana bukabije

Kubera y’uko ibi bisasu byo mu bwoko bwa Hydrogen bombs bikoreshwa ubu buryo bubiri icyarimwe, bisobanuye ko mo imbere muri bene iki gisasu haba harimo Atomic bomb kuko nyine habera mo icyo twabonye kitwa nucleas fission hakaba mo n’ikindi gice twabonye giturika mu buryo bwa Nucleas fusion.

Iyi ni yo mpamvu rero bavuga ko ibisasu byo mu bwoko bwa Hydrogen bombs bisumbya ubushobozi kure ibyo mu bwoko bwa Atomic bombs, kuko Hydrogen bomb imwe iba igizwe na Atomic bomb n’ikindi gice cya kabiri. N’ubwo ntaho ibi bisasu bya Hydrogen bombs byari byakoreshwa mu ntambara, ariko amagerageza agiye anyuranye akorwa n’abahanga mu bya Nikereyeri (Nuclear) agaragaza ko igisasu cya Hydrogen bomb n’icya Atomic bomb byombi bingana mu bunini, icya Hydrogen kiba gikubye icya Atomic inshuro 1,000 mu bijyanye n’ingufu.

Kugeza ubu ibihugu bifite ibi bisasu byo mu bwoko bwa Hydrogen bombs ni bitandatu gusa ari byo:

§  Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika

§  Ubushinwa

§  Uburusiya

§  Ubwongereza

§  Ubufaransa

§  Ubuhinde

Gusa n’igihugu cya Korea ya ruguru kijya kigamba ko kibifite. Nyuma y’ibi ariko, ibi bihugu byose tumaze kubona byasinyanye amasezerano yo guhagarika icurwa ry’ibi bisasu kubera ubukana bwabyo ndetse no gusenya ibyaba byaracuzwe, kuko hakekwa ko habaye intambara buri gihugu kibifite kikabikoresha, hari impungenge y’uko ikiremwa muntu n’ibindi binyabuzima byashira ku isi.

 

Src: Science Alert & Live Science






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