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Byinshi ku mashini ya mbere yoherejwe na NASA kuri Mars mu bushakashatsi, Ese aha hantu hari ubuzima?

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:31/07/2020 13:53
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Kuwa 30 Nyakanga 2020 ikigo cya NASA cyohereje imashini cyahaye Izina rya Perseverance ku mubumbe wa Mars gusuzuma niba hari ubuzima. Iyi mashini yajyane n’icyogajuru kitwa Atlas 5 cyahagurukiye ku kigo cyabugenewe kitwa Cape Canaveral muri Florida, USA.



Ni kenshi ikiremwamuntu cyamye kigerageza ku kuba cyahunga Isi benshi bakunze kwitako yuzuyemo ibibazo. Hakorwa ibishoboka mu gushaka kureba uko ikiremwamuntu cyajya kuba ku wundi mubumbe. Umubumbe benshi bashidukira ni Mars. Ese kuri uyu mubumbe ubundi ubuzima burashoboka? Inzobere zitekereza iki kuri iyi mashini bivugwa ko yagiye kureba niba kuri Mars hari ubuzima?


Imashini yiswe Perseverance 

Mu mateka y’iki kigo cya NASA ni bwo bwa mbere ikigo cya National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cyohereje icyogajuru kigamije ubushakashatsi ku bijyanye n’ubuzima kuri uyu mubumbe ukunzwe kwitwa uw’umutuku.

Nk'uko byagiye bitangazwa n’abahanga bagiye bakora ubushakashatsi kuri uyu mubumbe, mu myaka miliyari ya mbere kuri Mars hahoze amazi, iki kintu ni cyo gituma ikiremwamuntu kirajwe ishinga no kumenya niba kuri uyu mubumbe ubuzima bushoboka dore ko no kugira ngo ibiremwa byinshi bibashe gutura ku Isi ni uko ifite amazi.

Ese ni iki cy'ingenzi gituma benshi bavuga ko kuri Mars hashobora kuba harabaye ubuzima?

Benshi bavuga ko kuri Mars habaye ubuzima ndetse hari n’ibisigaratongo by’ibinyabuzima bigaragara mu bitare biri mu mikoki (Jezero) ibarizwa kuri uyu mubumbe, uyu mukoki benshi bemeza ko wahoze ari ikiyaga mu myaka isaga miliyari 3.5.

Abahanga barashaka no kugerageza kugurutsa ikintu kuri uyu mubumbe.

Benshi mu bahanga bari kuvuga ko bafite umugambi wo kugurutsa 'drone' ipima 1.8kg ihagurukiye kuri Mars, gusa abahanga bavuga ko kuguruka bitazayorohera kuko ikirere cyo kuri Mars cyorohereye (kitarimo hydrogen) inshuro zirenga 100 icyo ku isi.


Umushinga wa NASA wo kohereza imashini igendera ku butaka kuri Mars ugamije kuzana ku isi amabuye n'ubutaka byo kuri Mars.

Ese hari amahirwe y'ubuzima kuri Mars?

Benshi mu batuye ku Isi bakomeje kuyinubira kubera ibiza n'ibizazane bagenda bahura nabyo bikabatera gutekereza ku kuba bajya gushaka niba badashobora kubona ubuhungiro. Abahanga muri siyansi bakomeza gushakisha ibimenyetso byerekana ko ubuzima kuri Mars bushoboka, kuko batangaza ko bishobora guhindura imibereho y'abantu bo ku isi mu gihe kizaza.

Ibimaze kwemezwa neza ni ibimenyetso byerekana ko hahozeyo amazi, hari byinshi bigikenewe kumenywa, hari ubutumwa bwinshi bugamije ibyo, ubushakashatsi burakomeje.

Prof Caroline Smith wo mu kigo Natural History Museum i London aganira n’ikinyamakuru BBC yagize ati "Ntibikwiye na rimwe kuvuga ngo ntibishoboka."

Mbere y'imyaka y'ibyogajuru na za 'robots', abahanga muri siyansi n'abanditsi bavugaga ko Mars ishobora kuba ari ahantu hari ubuzima bw'ubwenge budasanzwe n'imibereho iteye imbere cyane.

Gusa mu 1965 ubwo icyogajuru Mariner 4 cy'Abanyamerika cyagurukaga hafi ya Mars cyazanye amafoto y'ahantu h'ibitare byumagaye, hagaragara nk'ahatari ubuzima.

Mu 1975 ibyogajuru bibiri bya Nasa byitwa Viking byageze kuri Mars bibona ibimenyetso bya za mikorobe (utunyabuzima dutoya cyane) ku butaka bwa Mars.

Ibi byose ariko biracyatera ibibazo byinshi bituma abahanga bakomeje koherezayo imashini ziteye imbere kurushaho gushakisha birenzeho, iyi ninayo mpamvu yatumye bagurutsa Atlas 5 kikajyana iyi machine “Perseverance”

Ese iyi mashini biteganyijwe ko izagera kuri uyu mubumbe ryari?


  Icyogajuru Atlas 5 gitwaye imashini ya Perseverance 

Atlas 5 yahagurutse ku munsi w'ejo kuwa Kane ijyanye iki kinyabiziga, igihari ni uko iki cyogajuru kiri kugenda gita ibice uko kigenda kizamuka cyane mu kirere, kiragenda nikigerayo kirajugunya kuri Mars iki kinyabiziga kuko kiri mu mutwe w'icyogajuru.

Umutwe w'icyogajuru gitwaye iki kinyabiziga uzagera aho ugenda ku muvuduko wa 41,000km/h, biteganyijwe ko uzagera mu kirere cya Mars tariki 18 z'ukwezi kwa kabiri umwaka utaha wa 2021. Nasa ivuga ko bizaba ari saa mbiri z'ijoro ku isaha ngengamasaha.

Kumenya Mars bizafasha iki isi? 

Jennifer Trosper, wungirije ukuriye umushinga wa Perseverance, asobanura ko iki kinyabiziga gikurikiye ibindi byagiyeyo mu myaka ishize, kurushaho gucukumbura by'umwihariko k'ubuzima.

Kuva ku kitwa Soujourner cyagiyeyo mu 1997 kikagenda metero 120 gusa kuri uyu mubumbe, kugera kuri Curiosity cyo mu 2012, cyo cyari kinafite ubundi buhanga bwo gupimirayo ibyo gifashe, abahanga barakomeza kugerageza kumva uyu mubumbe kurushaho.

Madamu Trosper ati: "Kumenya ibyabaye kuri Mars bizadufasha kumva kurushaho kumenya ibiba ku mibumbe igaragiye izuba no kumenya ibyo ku isi".

Src: bbc, cnbc






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