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Umugabane ubitse ubukungu buhambaye: Afurika

Yanditswe na: Muhawenimana Faridi
Taliki:5/07/2020 20:31
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Umugabane wa Afurika ubitse ubukungu bw’ umutungo kamere w’ isi ungana na 30%. Uyu, ni umutungo winjiza amamiriyali y’ amafaranga mu masunduku y’ ubukungu bwa za Leta na guverinoma zitandukanye. Gusa, ntibibuza Afurika kuba no kwitwa umugabane ukennye kurusha indi, n’ ubwo ucumbikiye 16% y’ abatuye Isi. Kuki utavamo iterambere?



Umugabane w’ Afurika wagiriwe umugisha wo kuba ububiko bw’ umutungo kamera w’ isi uri ku kigero cya 30%. Ni muri uyu mutungo, usangamo amabuye ahambaye y’ Agaciro, ibikomoka kuri peterori, ibiti byo mu mashyamba byihariye, ibikomokamo ibyuma bikomera, ndetse n’ ubundi bukungu uyu mugabane wihariye. 

Imibare yerekana ko ibikomoka kuri peterori bifite 8% mu Isi, naho gaze (gas) ikagira 7%. Amabuye y’ Agaciro afashe ikigero cya 70% cy’ ibisohorwa hanze y’ umugabane, mu gihe anafite 28% ku musaruro mbumbe w’ Afurika yose.

Uyu mugabane utuwe na 16% y’ abantu bose batuye Isi. N’ ubwo Afurika ishimagizwa kuba ikungahaye kuri imwe mu mitungu kamere (natural resources), ntabwo bikuraho ko ibihugu bigize uyu mugabane—ndetse na bimwe mu bikungahaye kuri iyo mitungo—kuba bikigaragara mu mibare y’ inyuma mu iterambere, ndetse bikarangwa n’ ubukene bunakabije.

Ikibazo abenshi bibaza igihe ku kindi ntigihinduka. Ese kuki twaba dufite ibyo byose, tunabigurisha mu buryo Mpuzamahanga, ariko ibihugu, n’ umugabane muri rusange bikanga bikaguma mu bukene?

Hari ingero zifatika cyane. Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, mu gace kitwa Katanga, haboneka imitungo kamere myinshi harimo, amabuye ya diyama (diamond), zahabu, ndetse n’ ibyitwa tantalum.

Muri raporo y’ Umuryango w’ Abibumbye yo mu 2002, yagaragaje ko kuva mu myaka ya 1999 kugera mu 2002, ku butegetsi bwa Laurent-Desire Kabila, iyo mitungo yavuyemo asaga miriyali 5 z’ Amadorali y’ Amerika, ariko akigira mu maboko y’ abantu ku giti cyabo, aho kujya mu nzego za Leta zishinzwe iby’ ubukungu muri Congo.

Umutungo kamere uboneka mu bihugu bitandukanye bya Afurika, ugurishwa mu mafaranga menshi cyane, ariko ugasanga ingeso za ruswa ntizemerera iyi mitungo ko yongera umusaruro mbumbe uturuka imbere mu gihugu.

Mu nkuru yihariye yakozwe na CNN, bifashishije Inyandiko za IMF za 2011, zerekanye ko muri Angola hacukuwe amavuta—akomokamo peterori—hanyuma basanga amafaranga asaga miriyali 32 z’ Amadorali y’ Amerika zarabuze mu ibarura ry’ amafaranga y’ Igihugu mu myaka ya 2007 na 2010. Aya, akabakaba kimwe cya kane ¼ cy’ ayo Igihugu cyinjije.

Aya mafaranga aturuka muri ubu butunzi, yagakwiye kuba intandaro yo kuba hakorwa ibikorwa remezo harimo n’ ibyifashishwa mu gucura cyangwa gutunganya bimwe mu bituruka muri uwo mutungo kamere.

Bitewe n’ uburyo bwo gutanga amasoko ku bigo Mpuzamahanga bizobereye mu gucura cyangwa gutunganya bimwe mu bikomoka muri iyo mitungo kamere, usanga ubukungu bw’ ibihugu buhazaharira.

Mu nzego z’ ubuyobozi bw’ Igihugu zo hejuru niho ukumvikana nk’ uko akenshi kubera. Nko muri Congo—ku ngoma ya Kabila—yagiye agirana amasezerano y’ ibanga harimo ayo yagiranye n’ uwitwa Dan Gertler. Habagaho uburyo w’ igurishwa rikozwe mu ibanga rikomeye, hanyuma iibyagurishijwe bigatangwa mu bigo Mpuzamahanga bikomeye, ariko amazina yabyo akaba atamenyekana.

Muri ubu buryo, bitekerezwa ko Congo yaba yarahahombeye miriyali 1.36 $—amafaranga akubye inshuro 2 igiteranyo cy’ akoreshwa mu buzima n’ uburezi muri iki gihugu.

Icyo ibikorwa nk’ ibi bibyara, bikiza urahande rumwe gusa. Bwana Gertler, yabashije gukura akayabo ka miriyali 1.44$ muri ibi bikorwa byo kugurisha imitungo y’ abaturage ba Congo.

Ntabwo ibi ari umwihariko w’ Igihugu kimwe, ni ibintu biboneka henshi ku mugabane. Nko muri Zambia—igihugu cya 7 mu isi mu bucukuzi bwa copper—mu mwaka wa 2012, Minisitiri wungirije Ushinzwe ubukungu, yagaragaje ko Igihugu cyahombye miriyali 2$ bitewe n’ ibura ry’ imisoro. Aya, agera ku 10% y’ umusaruro mbumbe w’ iki gihugu.

Imibare yerekana ko kuva mumyaka ya 1995 kugera mu 2006, mu bucuruzi bufite aho buhurira n’ imitungo kamere, hahombye miliyoni 167$.

Ikigaragarira buri wese, ni uko muri ibi bihugu biboneka iyi mitungo, hari uduce tw’ abantu runaka twakize, yewe tuzankomeza gukira bitewe na ruswa, gutanga amasoko mu burya butazwi, ndetse n’ibindi.

Mu myaka ya 2000 na 2008. Umusaruro mbumbe wa Afurika wiyongereye ku kigero cya 30%. Ari nako ishoramari riturutse mu mahanga ryiyongereye riva kuri miriyali 9$, rigera kuri miriyali 62$. Gusa, amenshi muri aya, ntabwo ajya mu masunduku ya Leta, ahubwo yitwarirwa n’ ibigo biba bicukura cyangwa bigatunganya ibyavuye muri uyu mutungo.

Gukura umugabane w’ Afurika, mu icuraburindi ry’ ubukene hakwiye gukorwa ibivugwa na benshi. Ku ikubitiro, hakwiye ubunyangamugayo, inozwa ry’ itangwa ry’ amasoko, ndetse no n’ uburyo bwo gusoresha buhamye. Ikindi cy’ ibanze, hakwiye gushyirwaho ingamba zo guhangana na ruswa.

Src: UN, ICIJ.org, globalwitness.org, afdb.org, CNN, The Guardian, Aljazeera, waronwant.org






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