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Ni iyihe mpamvu ibihugu bimwe na bimwe bifata umwanzuro wo kwimura imirwa mikuru?

Yanditswe na: Niyibizi Honoré Déogratias
Taliki:14/06/2020 21:42
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Umurwa mukuru w’igihugu ukunze kuba umujyi utuwe cyane aho amateka menshi yagiye abera kubera ibikorwa byo mu rwego rwo hejuru bya politiki n’ubukungu byahabereye. Icyakora, rimwe na rimwe abayobozi ba leta bashobora kwimura umurwa mukuru uva mu mujyi ujya mu wundi. Kwimura umurwa mukuru byakozwe inshuro amagana mu mateka.



Abanyamisiri ba kera, Abanyaroma, n'Abashinwa bahinduye umurwa mukuru wabo kenshi. Ibihugu bimwe bihitamo umurwa mukuru uherereye ahantu horoshye mu kurinda mu gihe igihugu cyaba kigabweho ibitero. 

Umurwa mukuru kandi ushobora gushyirwa mu gace kari inyuma mu majyambere kugira ngo nako bagateze imbere. Umurwa mukuru mushya rimwe na rimwe ushobora gushyirwa mu turere tubamo ubwumvikane buke bushingiye ku moko cyangwa amadini kugirango leta ishobore guteza imbere ubumwe, umutekano, n'iterambere.

Ibihugu rimwe na rimwe bihindura imigi mikuru yabyo kuko byiteze inyungu runaka za politiki, imibereho, cyangwa ubukungu. Byizera kandi bigateganya ko iyo migi mikuru mishya izatuma igihugu gitera imbere kigashikama. Igihugu cya Indonesia ubu kiri mu gahunda yo kuvana umurwa mukuru wacyo mu mujyi wa Jakarta wugarijwe n'umubyigano w'imodoka kandi uri gushaya ujya mu nyanja bakawujyana ku kirwa cya Borneo.

Igihe bizakorerwa ntabwo kiramenyekana neza, gusa Perezida Joko Widodo tariki 16 zu kwezi kwa munani muri 2019 yabwiye Inteko iby'uyu mugambi. Impamvu zo kwimura uyu murwa mukuru ntabwo zigoye kuzisobanura, kuko Jakarta ni umugi ushaya ujya mu nyanja ku kigero kiri hagati ya 1 -15cm buri mwaka. Hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy'uyu mujyi kiri munsi y'umurongo w'inyanja (below sea level).

Umubyigano w'imodoka waho uteye ubwoba: Mu 2016 ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko uyu mujyi munini cyane ari wo wa mbere kw'isi ubamo umubyigano ukabije w'imodoka. Abayobozi bakomeye barimo Ba minisitiri bisaba ko baherekezwa na polisi yo mu mihanda kugira ngo badakerererwa inama.

Igice cy'umujyi nyawo cya Jakarta gituwe n'abaturage miliyoni 30. Hagati ya 2 -4% by'amazi y'uyu mujyi niyo gusa atunganywa. Ni umujyi wugarijwe. Umurwa mukuru mushya ushobora kujyanwa ahitwa Kalimantan, agace kamwe ko ku kirwa cya Borneo. Ibi bishobora gutwara miliyari 33 z'amadorari, bigasaba kandi ubutaka bungana na hegitari 40,000 zishobora guturwaho n'abantu bagera kuri miliyoni 1,5.

Indonesia ariko sicyo gihugu cya mbere cyisanze kigomba kwimura umurwa mukuru wacyo, izi ni zimwe mu ngero:

1.KAZAKHSTAN

Mu 1997, Perezida Nursultan Nazarbayev yategetse kwimura umurwa mukuru ukava Almaty ukajya mu mujyi wa ASTANA uri muri 1,200Km mu majyaruguru.Ikindi yakoze ni uguhindura izina ry'uwo mujyi mushya witwaga Aqmola - bisobanuye "irimbi ryera" - awita Astana.

Yahise azana abahanga mu myubakire bo kw'isi ngo bubake imbata y'uyu mujyi bahereye kuri zero, kimwe mu birango by'uyu mujyi bizwi ni "Khan Shatyr" ihema rinini kurusha ayandi ku isi. Ryashushanyijwe rinubakwa na Norman Foster, ririmo amaguriro n'ibibuga by'imyidagaduro.

Bubatse kandi umuturirwa muremure cyane wa Baytarek wubatse nk'igi riteretse mu giti, uwuhagaze abona imirambi myiza igize uyu murwa wa Astana. Bubatse ibindi bikorwa remezo binogeye ijisho babifashijwemo n'amafaranga menshi cyane iki gihugu kivana mu bucukuzi bwa Petrol. Umwaka ushize ubukungu bw'iki gihugu bwazamutse ku gipimo cya 4,8%.

Nko kumushimira, mu kwezi kwa gatatu ubwo Perezida Nazarbayev yari avuye ku butegetsi, Inteko ishinga amategeko yafashe umwanzuro wo kumwitirira uyu mujyi. Umurwa mukuru w'iki gihugu niwo murwa mukuru wa kabiri ugira ubukonje bwinshi ku isi, uza inyuma ya Ulaanbaatar muri Mongolia.

2.MYANMAR

Umujyi wa Nay Pyi Taw uruta inshuro enye umujyi wa London mu bunini, ariko ufite abawutuye bacye cyane. Amateka yawo nayo ni magufi, wavutse mu 2005 ushinzwe n'abategetsi ba gisirikare b'iki gihugu kitwaga Burma mbere. Izina ryawo risobanuye "intebe y'umwami". Impamvu zo kwimura umurwa mukuru wahoze ari Yangon (Rangoon) ntabwo zigeze zisobanuka neza.

Icyo gihe, minisitiri ushinzwe gutangaza amakuru yabwiye BBC ko umurwa mukuru wimuwe ujyanwa ahantu h'ingenzi (strategic).Abasesenguzi bavuze ko abasirikare batinyaga ko hari ibitero bizaturuka hanze bigahungabanya umujyi wari wegereye cyane umupaka.

Abandi bavuga ko hari abategetsi bakomeye bayoborera igihugu mu ibanga bariho bakurikiza imigenzo ya y'abami ba cyera yo kubaka imijyi mishya aho abaraguzi bababwiye.

Uyu mujyi ufite ibyerekana ko ari umurwa mukuru; umuhanda uva ku Nteko ishinga amategeko ugana ku biro by'umukuru w'igihugu ufite ubugari bushobora kugendaho imodoka 20, ariko nta modoka nyinshi ziwurangwamo.

Hoteli nziza n'amaguriro manini biri kuri uyu muhanda ariko nta bantu benshi baba babirimo, ni umujyi mushya unabonekamo amashanyarazi kenshi bitandukanye n'ibindi bice byinshi by'iki gihugu.

3.BOLIVIA

Bolivia yo ifite imirwa mikuru ibiri: Sucre na La Paz.

Sucre niwo wari umurwa mukuru wonyine kugeza mu 1899 ubwo uyu mujyi watsinzwe intambara n'uwa La Paz. Nyuma y'ibi Inteko hamwe n'izindi serivisi nini za rubanda byimuriwe mu mujyi munini w'igihugu, La Paz, urwego rw'ubutabera bwo buguma muri Sucre.Sucre, iri hagati mu gihugu, aho Bolivia yashingiwe mu 1825. Ifite abaturage 250,000 gusa ugereranyije na La Paz ifite abaturage miliyoni 1,7.

Mu 2007, hatanzwe ikifuzo ko guverinoma n'Inteko byasubira muri Sucre, kubera imyivumbagatanyo ikomeye yari yateye mu mujyi wa La Paz. Igitekerezo cyazamuwe n'amakimbirane hagati ya rubanda rusanzwe rukennye rwari rushyigikiye Perezida Evo Morales rwiganje mu burengerazuba ruhanganye n'abamurwanya biganjemo abaturage bifite bo mu burasirazuba.

Iki gitekerezo ariko cyaje kwangwa, Bolivia kugeza none ifite imirwa mikuru ibiri

4.NIGERIA

Kugeza mu 1991 Lagos, umujyi munini kurusha indi muri Nigeria, niyo yari umurwa mukuru. Hari impamvu zinyuranye zatumye bawimurira i Abuja. Iya mbere ni uko Abuja iri hagati mu gihugu. Byasabaga urugendo rw'iminsi ibiri mu muhanda, 1,600Km, kugira ngo umuntu ave i Maiduguri mu Majyaruguru y'iburasirazuba agere ku bategetsi i Lagos ku nyanjya, Abuja ni hagati, ni hafi kuri bose.

Lagos yari ituwe bikabije (niwo mujyi utuwe n'abantu benshi muri Afurika yo munsi ya Sahara) nayo ni indi mpamvu yatumye bahindura.Abuja yari kandi ituwe n'amoko yose n'abanyapolitiki banyuranye kurusha Lagos.

Lagos ituwe cyane n'aba Yoruba, aba Igbo biganje cyane mu majyepfo y'uburasirazuba, aba Haussa mu majyaruguru y'iburengerazuba. Abuja yabonekaga nk'itabogamiye kuri bamwe mu miturire.Mu gihe Lagos ari umujyi wagiye ukura, Abuja ni umujyi wabayeho wateguwe - umujyi wa mbere byari bibayeho muri Nigeria.

Umubyigano w'imodoka muri Lagos uteye ubwoba, i Abuja imihanda yahanzwe yagutse bihagije. Ibigo by'umuco wa Nigeria niho biri, urukiko rw'ikirenga, inteko ishinga amategeko, iboro by'umukuru w'igihugu. Icyakora ibigo byinshi by'ubuzima bw'igihugu biracyafite ibyicaro i Lagos.

6.BURUNDI

Mu 2007, imyaka ibiri Perezida Nkurunziza amaze kugera ku butegetsi yabwiye Abarundi ko azimurira umurwa mukuru i Gitega, Bujumbura igasigara ari umurwa mukuru w'ubukungu.

Mu mpera z'umwaka wa 2018 ubutegetsi bwarabyemeje, kuva mu ntangiriro z'umwaka wa 2019 Inteko ishinga amategeko na za minisiteri zimwe na zimwe ubu zikorera i Gitega, umurwa mukuru wa politiki w'igihugu. Impamvu zatanzwe ni uko uyu mujyi uri mu ntara ya Gitega ngo ari wo uri hagati mu gihugu.

Kuva mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 2019 ibikorwa by'ubutegetsi n'ibigo bya Leta byatangiye kwimukira i Gitega, igikorwa Leta yavuze kizamara imyaka itatu. U Burundi ubu bufite umurwa mukuru wa politiki nka Gitega, n'umurwa mukuru w'ubukungu nka Bujumbura.

Src: www.bbc.com, www.thoughtco.com, www.urbangateway.org






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