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Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam: Nyirabayazana w’umwuka mubi hagati ya Ethiopia na Misiri

Yanditswe na: Christian Mukama
Taliki:3/06/2020 16:53
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Abagera kuri Miliyoni 160 bakoresha amazi y’uruzi rwa Nil mu buzima bwa buri munsi. Uru ruzi rumaze gutera amakimbirane mu bihugu runyuramo kubera ikoreshwa ryawo. Magingo aya Ethiopia na Misiri birarebana ay’ingwe kubera urugomero rw’amashanyarazi rwa Miliyari $5, Ethiopia irikubaka. Ikoreshwa ry’amazi ryaba nyirabayazana w’intambara?



Kuva mu mwaka wa 1929 kugera magingo aya, amasezerano agenga ikoreshwa ry’amazi y’uruzi rwa Nil aracyasinywa. Impamvu nyamukuru itera ibihugu bihurira kuri uru ruzi guhora mu masezerano, ni ukugira ngo hatagira uruhande urwo ari rwo rwose rwikubira cyangwa rukaryamirwa mu isaranganwa n’ikoresha ry’aya mazi. Urugero rubangutse: 95% by’abatuye Misiri banywa amazi ya Nil, naho 25% byabo bikayakoresha mukuhira ibihingwa bigaburira isoko ry’imbere mu gihugu ndetse no hanze yacyo.

Uruzi rwa Nil ni rwo rurerure ku isi dore ko rufite kirometero gisaga 7000 uhereye ku isoko yarwo. Uru nu uruzi ruhuriweho n’ibihugu 10 ari byo: U Rwanda, U Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, S.Sudan, Misiri kimwe na DR Congo. Byinshi muri ibi bihugu ni byo bifite amasoko y’uru ruzi. 

Amazi y’uru ruzi asonanuye byinshi mu bijyanye n’ubukungu bw’ibihugu, imibereho myiza y’abaturage ba byo, ubuhangange mu kare kimwe no ku ruhando mpuzamahanga. Ibi, ni byo byagiye biba nyirabayazana w’ibibazo hagati y’ibihugu bikoresha uru ruzi bigatuma yewe nka Ethiopia, Sudan na Misiri bihora birebana ay’ingwe.

Ubwo iyi nkuru yandikwaga, igereranyisha rihari ryerekana ko abaturage miriyoni 160 ari bo bakoresha amazi y’uruzi rwa Nil umunsi ku munsi. Mu mwaka wa 1929 ni bwo hasinywe amasezerano hagati ya Misiri n’ibihugu byakorenizwaga n’u Bwongereza byitiriwe kuba mu kibaya cy’uru ruzi.

 Ingingo y’ingenzi aya amasezerano yasize,  Misiri yahawe ububasha mu kugenzura ibikorwa byose byakubakwa kuri uru ruzi kugira ngo hatazabaho kuyivutsa ingano y’amazi yakira. Amasezerano ntiyarangiriye mu 1929 ahubwo muri 1959 yarakommeje, 2015 yewe n’uyu mwaka abakuru b’ibihugu bya Misiri, Sudan na Ethiopia baracyaganira ku ikoreshwa ry’aya mazi.

Kuva mu mwaka wa 1974-1991 ku butegetsi bwa Mengistu Haile Mariam muri Ethiopia; Sudan na Misiri bagiye bagirana amasezerano agenga imikoreshereze ya Nil ariko Ethiopia ntiyagaragaremo. Mengestu yari umuyobozi wategekeshejeiki gihugu inkoni y’icyuma. Aho Ethiopia igiriye ubuyobozi na yo yatangiye gushaka kwerekana ko na yo ifite uruhare runini kuri uru ruzi dore ko ifite isoko nini yayo ituruka mu kiyaga cya Tana. 

Si Ethiopia yagaragaje ubushake bwo kubyaza umusaruro w’uru ruzi gusa kuko mu 2010 yo, Tanzania, U Rwanda, U Burundi, Kenya na Uganda byasinye amasezerano yemereraga ibi bihugu gukoresha amazi y’amasoko y’uru ruzi mu bikorwa by’iterambere harimo no kuhira imyaka bitagombereye ko Misiri ibiha umugisha. Nyuma y’umwaka umwe gusa aya masezerano ayizweho umukono havutse umushinga bikekwa ko ushobora gutuma Misiri na Ethiopia hatagize igikorwa, byatana mu mitwe.

Ubwo Hosni Mubarak yahirikwaga ku butegetsi mu Misiri mu nkundura y’impinduramatwara y’Abarabu muri 2011; Ethiopia yatangiye umushinga wo kubaka urugomero runini rw’amashanyarazi ku ruzi rwa Nil. “Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Damni umushinga w’urugomero ruzatanga umuriro wa megawatt 6500 ndetse iyubakwa ryarwo rikaba ryatanze akazi abantu 20000. Uyu mushinga uteganyije gutwara agera kuri miriyari  $5. Iby’uyu mushinga Misiri ntibikozwa, yewe inashinja Ethiopia kuba yarawushyize mu bikorwa igihe yo yari mu kavuyo k’impinduramatwara. 

Byagiye bihwihwiswa ko Ethiopia nidashyira akadomo kuri uru rugomero cyangwa ngo yumvikane na Misiri imikoreshereze yarwo ko yiteguye─Misiri─ kurusenya n’ubwo nta muyobozi watangaje ayo magambo. Nyamara mu mwaka wa 2019, ubwo minisiteri w’intebe wa Ethiopia yari imbere y’inteko ishingamategeko yayitangarije ko ntakintu cyakwitambika uyu mushinga, yewe ko n’iyo intambara yaza bashishikariza urubyiruko rwabo kubatera ingabo mu bitugu.

Misiri itewe ikibazo n’iyuzuzwa ry’amazi muri uru rugomero kuko byayitera igihombo gikomeye mu mirire n’ubukungu. Ethiopia ntizahara uyu mushinga kuko nyuma yo kuzura kwawo byatuma mu gihe gito igira ubukungu buciriritse kubera igurishwa ry’umuriro mu karere. Ni nde uzaharira undi? Twitege intambara koko itewe n’amazi? 






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