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Amateka ya Harriet Tubman, Umwirabura wa mbere ugiye kugaragara ku noti y’amadolari y’Amerika

Yanditswe na: Niyibizi Honoré Déogratias
Taliki:9/05/2020 14:31
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Mu gihe ubucakara bwarimo bujya mbere muri Amerika, byari kukugora kumva ko hari umucakara wabashije gutoroka bikamuhira dore ko babaga barinzwe bikomeye, ariko umugore witwa Harriet Tubman we yarabigerageje birakunda aza no gufasha abacakara bagenzi be gucika banyuze mu nzira yari yarakoze itazwi.



Harriet Tubman ni muntu ki?

Tubman yavutse mu gihe cy’ubucakara mu Majyepfo y’Amerika muri leta ya Maryland. Mu 1849 yatorokeye muri Leta zo mu Majyaruguru y’Amerika zitabagamo ubucakara maze atangira gushakisha uburyo azajya acikisha nabo mu muryango we binyuze mu nzira zacaga munsi y’ubutaka. 

Tubman yemeye gushyira ubuzima bwe mu kaga ngo acikishe abo mu muryango we ndetse n'inshuti ze bari mu bucakara bwo guhingira ibisheke Abanyaburayi, maze akajya abajyana munzu y’ibanga yari yaraguze. 

Nk’umuntu waharaniye ko ubucakara buhagarara yabaye Maneko mu ntambara yahuje leta zo mu Majyaruguru no mu Majyepfo y’Amerika zizwi nka AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, aho yari ku ruhande rw’Amajyaruguru rutashyigikiraga ubucakara habe na gato.

Nyuma y'uko iyi ntambara irangiye Tubman yatangiye kujya afasha abakene bahoze ari abacakara ndetse n’abasheshakanguhe. Mu kumuha icyubahiro ndetse n’ubusabe bwa benshi, muri 2016, ikigo cy’igihugu muri Amerika gishinzwe iby’imari cyatangaje ko Tubman azashyirwa ku noti y’amadorali makumyabiri agasimburaho perezida Andrew Jackson.

Mu buzima bwa mbere yo gutoroka yari muntu ki?

Itariki y’amavuko ya Tubman ntabwo izwi neza ariko abantu bakeka ko yavutse hagati y’1820 na 1825. Tubman avuka mu muryango w’abana icyenda ku babyeyi b'abacakara mu gace ka Dorchester muri leta ya Maryland. Mama we Harriet “rit” Green yari umucakara kwa Mary Pattison Brodess naho papa we, Ben Ross yari umucakara kwa Anthony Thompson (aba bombi Brodess na Thompson bakaba bari barashyingiranwe).

Amazina ye nyakuri yari Araminta Harriet Ross Tubman ariko ababyeyi be bamuhimbaga MINTY. Tubman yahinduye izina rye yitwa Harriet mu gihe yashakaga. Tubman yabayeho mu buzima bukomeye kuko akiri muto, umuhungu wa Mary Brodess witwa Edward yagurishije abavandimwe be batatu b'abakobwa mu mirima ya kure yakorerwagamo ubuhinzi agamije gusenya umuryango. 

Igihe umucuruzi ukomoka muri leta ya Georgia yegeraga Brodess ku byerekeye kugura murumuna we muto, nyina yarabyanze ku buryo bukomeye kuko umuryango we wari kuba umushizeho. Ibi byahaye urugero rwiza Tubman rwo kwihagararaho uko bishoboka kose bituma akura afite intego yo kurwanya ubucakara.

Guhohoterwa birimo gukubitwa n’ibindi byari bimwe mu bigize ubuzima bwe bwa buri munsi. Iri hohoterwa yahuraga naryo mu bwana bwe ryamusigiye ibikomere bidakira. Tubman hari igihe cyageze akajya akubitwa inshuro eshanu mbere y’ifunguro rya mu gitondo, ibi byatumye arangwa n’inkovu nyinshi ubuzima bwe bwose.

Igikomere kimwe yagize gikomeye cyabaye igihe yari umwangavu. Yoherejwe mu bubiko kuzana ibikoresho yifashishaga mu kazi ke, maze mukuvayo ahura n’umucakara wari utorotse aho bakoreshwaga uburetwa nta ruhushya. 

Umurinzi w’umugabo wari uraho hafi yasabye Tubman guhagarika uwo wari ucitse, maze undi arabyanga. Akimara kubyanga uwo murinzi yahise akubita Tubman ikintu kiremeye mu mutwe, ahita agwa igihumure. Ibi byaviriyemo Tubman kurwara umutwe hafi ubuzima bwe bwose ndetse n’izindi ndwara zituruka kuri iki gikomere.

Hagati yo kwibohora n’ubucakara byari bibi cyane mu muryango wa Tubman. Papa we yavanywe mubucakara ageze ku myaka 45 nk’uko umukoresha we yabigenaga. Nubwo se atari akiri umucakara ntabwo yari yakagize uburenganzira bwose nk’umuntu.

Mu rukundo ni muntu ki?

Mu 1844, Tubman yashyingiranywe n’umugabo w’umwirabura utari umucakara witwa John Tubman (izina Tubman arikomora ku mugabo we). Muri iki gihe, hafi igice cy'aba African-american (Abanyamerika bafite ibisekuru bikomoka muri afurika) babaga ku nkombe y’Uburasirazuba bwa Maryland bo barigengaga ntabwo bari abacakara, nta n'ubwo byari bisanzwe ko umuryango w’abirabura uburamo umucakara.

N’ibintu bike cyane bizwi kuri John Tubman n’ubukwe bwe na Tubman ndetse n’igihe bamaze babana. Iyo baza kubyarana abana babo bari kuzaba abacakara bitewe nuko mama wabo yari yarabaye umucakara. John yanze kujyana na Tubman, ahitamo kuguma muri Maryland n’umugore mushya.

Mu 1869, Tubman yashyingiranywe n’uwahoze ari umusirikare mu ntambara yiswe civil war witwaga Nelson Davis. Mu 1874, we n’umugabo we biyemeje kurera umwana witwaga GERTIE.

Ni irihe banga yakoreshaga mu gucikisha abantu?

Hagati y'1850 na 1860, Tubman yakoze ingendo zigera kuri 19 ziva mu Majyepfo (Leta zari zugarijwe n’ubucakara) zerekeza mu majyaruguru (Leta abaturage bari bibohoye bigenga) yifashishije imihanda ndetse n’amazu y’ibanga atari azwi n’abategetsi bicyo gihe. (ibi byari bizwi ku kazina ka Underground Railroad). 

Yifashishije ubu buryo yabashije gucikisha abantu bagera kuri 300, barimo ababyeyi be, abavandimwe n’inshuti abakuye mu bucakara akabajyana aho umuntu yishyira akizana. Iki gikorwa cyatumye bamwita “MUSA” kubera ukuntu yayoboraga abantu arimo abacikisha.

Tubman bwa mbere yakoresheje uburyo bwa Underground Railroad ubwo yageragezaga guhunga ubucakara ku giti cye mu 1849. Akurikije uburwayi n’urupfu by’uwamukoreshaga ubucakara, Tubman yiyemeje guhunga ubucakara akava muri Maryland (amajyepfo) akajya muri Philadelphia (amajyaruguru). Yatangiye kugira ubwoba biturutse ku muryango yari yarasize mu buretwa kandi uhabwa agaciro gake.

Taliki ya 17 Nzeri 1849 Tubman yacikishije basaza be babiri Ben na Harry. Icyakora bakimara gucika, hahise hasohoka itangazo rivuga ko umuntu uzafata Tubman akamugarura azahabwa akayabo k’amadorali 300 iki gihe yari menshi cyane. Harry na Ben bagize ubwoba basubira Maryland mu bucakara bw’ubuhinzi. Tubman nta gahunda yo kuguma mu bubata bw’ubucakara yari afite.

Yifashishije uburyo bwa Underground Railroad, Tubman yakoze urugendo rw'ibirometero 90 yerekeza i Philadelphia. Yambutse muri leta ya Pennsylvania ifite kwishyira ukizana yumva aruhutse kandi afite ibyishimo maze aravuga ati: “Igihe nasangaga narenze uwo murongo, narebye amaboko yanjye kugira ngo ndebe niba ari nge koko. Hariho icyubahiro kuri byose; izuba ryaje nka zahabu rinyuze mu biti, no hejuru y'imirima, numva meze nkuri mu ijuru. ”

Aho kuguma mu mutekano w'Amajyaruguru, Tubman yihaye inshingano yo gutabara umuryango we n'abandi babaye mu bucakara binyuze muburyo bwa Underground Railroad. Mu Ukuboza 1850, Tubman yakiriye umuburo w'uko mwishywa we Kessiah agiye kugurishwa, hamwe n'abana be babiri bato. 

Umugabo wa Kessiah, umwirabura wigenga witwa John Bowley, yatanze isoko ryo gutsindira umugore we muri cyamunara i Baltimore. Tubman yaciye afasha umuryango wose gukora urugendo rwo kujya i Philadelphia. Iyi yari iya mbere mu ngendo nyinshi zakozwe na Tubman.

Ingingo zirebana no gutoroka ubucakara zahindutse mu 1850, hamwe n’itegeko ry’abacakara batorotse. Iri tegeko ryavugaga ko abacakara batorotse bashobora gufatwa mu majyaruguru bagasubizwa mu bucakara mu majyepfo,byatumye abahoze ari abacakara ndetse n’abirabura bigeganga batangira kujya bashimutwa muri leta zo mu majyaruguru. Abashinzwe kubahiriza amategeko mu Majyaruguru bahatiwe gufasha mu gufata abacakara, batitaye ku mahame yabo bwite.

Mu guhangana n’amategeko, Tubman yatangiye kujya acikishiriza abacakara muri Canada,igihugu cyangaga ubucakara mu buryo bukomeye. Mu kuboza 1851, Tubman yayoboye itsinda ry'abantu 11 bahunze amajyaruguru. Hariho ibimenyetso byerekana ko ishyaka ryahagaze mu rugo rw’umuntu warwanyaga ubucakara kandi wahoze ari umucakara Frederick Douglass.

Muri Mata 1858, Tubman yamenyanye na John Brown warwanyaga ubucakara, wasabye ko hakoreshwa ihohoterwa mu guhungabanya no gusenya ikigo gishinzwe iby’ubucakara. Tubman yasangiye intego za Brown kandi byibura yihanganira uburyo bwe. Tubman yavuze ko afite iyerekwa ry'ubuhanuzi rya Brown mbere yuko bahura.

Igihe Brown yatangiraga gushaka abamushyigikira mu gitero cyagabwe ku bantu bari bafite abacakara kuri Harper’s Ferry, yitabaje “Jenerali Tubman” kugira ngo amufashe. Nyuma y’iyicwa rya Brown, Tubman yamushimye ko ari umumaritiri.

Tubman yakomeje kugira ishyaka mu gihe cy'intambara y'abenegihugu. Akorera ingabo z’ubumwe nk’umutetsi n’umuforomo. Tubman yahise aba umusikuti n’intasi. Umugore wa mbere wayoboye urugendo rwitwaje intwaro mu ntambara, yayoboye igitero cyo ku mugezi wa Combahee, cyabohoje abacakara bagera kuri 700 muri Caroline y'Epfo.

Ubuzima bwa nyuma y’ubucakara.

Mu ntangiriro za 1859, Senateri William H. Seward warwanyaga ubucakara yagurishije Tubman isambu ntoya mu nkengero za Auburn, muri New York. Isambu ya Auburn yabaye icumbi y'umuryango wa Tubman n’inshuti ze. Tubman yamaze imyaka ikurikira intambara kuri uyu mutungo, yita ku muryango we ndetse n'abandi bari barahatuye.

Nubwo Tubman yari ikirangirire kandi yubashywe, ntabwo yigeze yihaza mubukungu. Inshuti za Tubman n'abamushyigikiye bashoboye gukusanya inkunga yo kumufasha mu mibereho ye. Umwe mu bashimishijwe na Tubman witwa Sarah H. Bradford yanditse kubuzima bwa Tubman mu gitabo yise “Scenes in the life of Harriet Tubman” ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda bisobanura Amashusho mu buzima bwa Harriet Tubman, amafaranga yavuyemo akajya muri Tubman n'umuryango we.

Tubman yakomeje gutanga k’ubuntu nubwo yari afite ibibazo by'ubukungu. Mu 1903, yatanze isambu ye ku Itorero ry'Abepisikopi Nyafurika rya Metodiste i Auburn

Igihe yapfiriye

Tubman yapfuye azize umusonga ku ya 10 Werurwe 1913, akikijwe n'incuti n'umuryango, afite imyaka igera kuri 93. Tubman amaze gusaza, ibikomere byo mu mutwe yagize akiri muto mu buzima bwe byarushijeho kumubabaza no gutuma ahungabana. 

Yabazwe ubwonko mu bitaro bikuru bya Massachusetts i Boston kugira ngo hagabanwye ububabare ndetse n '“urusaku” . Tubman yaje kwinjizwa mu rugo rusigaye rwitiriwe icyubahiro. Yashyinguwe mu cyubahiro cya gisirikare ku irimbi rya Fort Hill i Auburn.

Ibigwi ya gezeho

Azwi kandi yubahwa cyane akiri muzima ndetse n’igihe yitabye Imana, Tubman yabaye ikimenyetso cy’abanyamerika mu myaka yakurikiye. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya 20 bwamwise umwe mu baturage bazwi cyane mu mateka y'Abanyamerika mbere y'intambara y'abenegihugu (civil war), akaba uwa gatatu nyuma ya Betsy Ross na Paul Revere. Yakomeje gushishikariza ibisekuruza by’abanyamerika guharanira uburenganzira bw’abaturage.

Igihe Tubman yapfaga, umujyi wa Auburn wibutse ubuzima bwe bashyira amafoto ye kunyubako zikomeye. Tubman yizihijwe mu bundi buryo bwinshi mu gihugu cyose mu kinyejana cya 20. Amashuri menshi yitiriwe izina rye, kandi inzu ya Harriet Tubman i Auburn ndetse n’inzu ndangamurage ya Harriet Tubman i Cambridge ni inzibutso z'ubuzima bwe.

Filime yo mu 1978, Umugore witwa Musa, yibukije ubuzima bwe n’umwuga, naho filime Harriet yo mu 2019 ivuga amateka ya Tubman nk'umuyobozi wa gari ya moshi. Yakinweho fime zitandukanye harimo nkiyo mu 1978 yibutsaga ubuzima ubwe n’ukuntu yahanganye n’ubucakara. Indi niyo muri 2019 yerekanaga ukuntu yacikishaga abantu akoresheje uburyo buzwi nka Underground Railroad.

Niki kizatuma ashyirwa ku note y’idorali rya 20?

Muri 2016, Ikigo cy’Imari cya Amerika cyatangaje ko Tubman azasimbura Perezida Jackson ku idorali rishya rya makumyabiri ryari kuzasohoka muri 2021 bikaza kwimurirwa muri 2028 ku buyobozi bwa Trump. Ibi byatangajwe nyuma y'uko iki kigo gikomeje kwakira ubusabe bw’abantu batandukanye bwavugaga ko umunyamerikakazi wagaragaje umwihariko nawe yashyirwa ku madorali y’Amerika. 

Umwanzuro warangiye hemejwe madamu Tubman waharaniye kwishyira ukizana kw’abirabura muri Amerika bari mu bucakara ndetse wanaharaniye uburenganzira bw’umugore.

Src: www.britannica.com & www.biography.com






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