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Ubwoko bw’aba ‘San’ bumaze imyaka irenga 100,000 buyoboye urutonde rw'amoko gakondo ya Afurika amaze imyaka myinshi

Yanditswe na: Gentillesse Cyuzuzo
Taliki:8/01/2020 14:39
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Bivugwa ko inkomoko y’ikiremwamuntu ari ku mugabane w’Afurika mu myaka ama miliyoni ishize. Amoko menshi y’abanyafurika ni yo akomokaho ikiremwamuntu. Amwe muri aya moko akiriho muri iki gihe afite uburyo bwihariye abayeho ndetse n’ururimi bavuga ntirusa n’izindi ndimi ziriho muri iki gihe.



N’ubwo abanyaburayi bagiye bakoloniza ibihugu ayo moko abarizwamo, aya moko yabashije gukomera ku mico yabo ndetse amoko menshi muri aya iby'iterambere cyangwa ikoranabuhanga riraje ishinga Isi bamwe ntacyo biba bibabwiye ndetse yemwe nta n'inyota yo kubimenya kuko biba bitabashishikaje. Ni ukuvuga WhatsApp, Instagram ndetse n'ibindi biri kwigarurira imitima y’abantu b'iyi minsi aya moko amwe ntabiyareba dore ko amwe muri yo n'iishuli ari nk’igisakuzo cyangwa kera habayeho.

Amoko ari kuri uru rutonde yose ariho ndetse aracyafite umuco w’abakurambere babo.

7. Massai

 

Aba Massai bamaze imyaka irenga 3000, baboneka mu Majyepfo ya Kenya no mu Majyaruguru ya Tanzania. Aba Massai ubu babarirwa mu 900,000 bakaba bavuga ururimi rw’iki Massai.

Ubwoko bw’aba Massai ni bumwe mu moko y’abanyafurika buzwi ku rwego mpuzamahanga bitewe n’uko batuye hafi y’ama pariki akunze gusurwa mu bihugu bya Kenya na Tanzania. Ubu bwoko kandi buzwi kubera imyambaro ndetse n’imirimbo byabo byihariye. Gusura aba ba Massai kandi ni kimwe mu bikurura ba mukerarugendo cyane mu gihugu cya Kenya.

Ubu bwoko bw’aba Massai bufite inkomoko mu Majyaruguru ya lake Turkana (Uburengerazuba bw’Amajyaruguru bwa Kenya). Aba Massai batangiye kwimukira mu Majyepfo mu kinyejana cya 15, gusa bizwi ko ubu bwoko bumaze imyaka igera ku 3000. Aba Massai kandi bazwiho kuba bagira abarwanyi bakomeye kuva mu kinyejana cya 19.

6. Berbers

          

Ubwoko bw’aba Barber bumaze imyaka irenga 10,000, batuye muri Algeria, amajyaruguru ya Mali, Mauritania, Libya, Niger no mu bice byo mu Burengerazuba bwa Misiri. Bavuga indimi zabo gakondo ndetse n’icyarabu.

Ubu bwoko bukunze kwiyita Amazigh, ni abaturage ba kavukire muri Afurika y’Amajyaruguru. Hari ibimenyetso ko ubu bwoko bwari butuye muri Afurika y’Amajyaruguru kuva ikiremwamuntu cyatangira kubaho. Bivugwa kandi ko aba ba Barber ari abakurambere b’abarabu batuye bwa mbere mu bice bya Afurika y’Amajyaruguru.

Iri zina ry’aba Barber ryacuzwe n’aba Romani barikuye mu ijambo ry’Ikigereki (barbarus). Mu nyandiko z’aba Gereki, aba Berber bari bazwi nk’abanya Libya ndetse mu Burayi ni bo bari bazwi nk’Abanyafurika.

5. Sandawe

                   

Ubu bwoko bw’aba Sandawe bukomoka mu gihugu cya Tanzaniya, bumaze imyaka irenga 87,000 kuri ubu babarirwa mu bihumbi 60 by’abaturage. Bavuga igi Sandawe.

Aba Sandawe baba muri Tanzania hagati bakaba baturanye n’ubundi bwoko bwitwa aba Hadza. Aba Sandawe bavuga ni bamwe mu basigaranye ururimi ruvugwa nk’uruvugirwa mu nkaka muri Afurika yose. Gusa uburyo uru rurimi ruvugwa bitandukanye n’igi Hadza.

Aba Sandawe bakomoka kuri bamwe mu biremwamuntu bya mbere ndetse bikaba bivugwa ko bafitanye isano n’ubwoko bw’aba San, bazwiho kuba ari bwo bwoko bukuze mu mateka y’ikiremwamuntu.

4. Abasangwabutaka

Ubu bwoko bumaze imyaka irenga 100,000 bugaragara cyane muri Afurika yo hagati cyane cyane muri Congo. Bufite abaturage babarirwa mu 900,000 bakaba bavuga ururimi rutandukanye bitewe n'aho batuye. Abasangwabutaka b’Abanyafurika bazwi cyane bitewe n’uburyo ari bato ndetse bakaba na bagufi, ntabwo ari ubwoko bumwe bose.

Mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe muri 2015, bwagaragaje ko imikurire y’abasangwabutaka itandukanye n’iy'abandi bantu basanzwe binatuma bakunze kuba ari bagufi. Abasangwabutaka bavuka baringaniye ahubwo mu mikurire yabo bakiri bato ikagenda buhoro cyane. Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko ubugufi bw’abasangwabutaka buri mu mikurire y’uturemangingo atari ukubera imiterere y’ahantu bakunze gutura.

3. Hadza

Ubwoko bw’aba Hadza bumaze imyaka irenga 100,000 bakaba baba mu gihugu cya Tanzania, ubu babarirwa mu baturage basaga 1200-1300. Bavuga ururimi rw’igi Hadza.

Ubwoko bw’aba Hadza buzwi nka bumwe mu bwoko bumaze imyaka myinshi ku isi. Aba Hadza bazwiho kuba abahigi cyane ndetse bakaba babayeho mu buzima bumwe kuva mu myaka 10,000 ishize. Ubu bwoko ntibujya buhinga, ntibugira ibigega bahunikamo ndetse nta hantu hihariye bagira batura.

Nk’ubwoko bw’aba San, abakurambere b’aba Hadza bitandukanyije n'andi moko mu bihe bya cyera. Aba Hadza bagira ururimi rutameze nk’urundi rurimi urwo ari rwo rwose ku isi.

2. Nama

Aba Nama bamaze imyaka iri hagati y'ibihumbi ijana n'ibihumbi ijana na mirongo ine (100,000-140,000) bakomoka mu bice byo muri Afurika y'Amajyepfo nka Namibia na Botswana. Aba Nama babarirwa mu 130,000 bavuga iki Nama n'icyongereza. Aba Nama ni bo ba nyuma bakomoka ku ba Khoikhoi bafitanye isano rya hafi n’aba San. Aba Khoikhoi n’aba San bitwa Khoisan rimwe na rimwe bitwa ubwoko bwa mbere bukuze ku isi.

Ubu, hasigaye aba Nama b’umwimerere bacye bitewe no kugenda bashyingiranwa n’ayandi moko ndetse n’icyorezo cya gapfura cyabibasiye mu kinyejana cya 18. Aba Nama borora inka, umuco bafashe nyuma y'uko uzanywe n’aba San mu myaka 2,300 ishize. Ubu bwoko bwatangiye kwiyita aba Khoikhoi mu kwitandukanya n’aba Khoisan. Ni bo basigaye bonyine.

1 San

Ubwoko bw’aba San bumaze imyaka 100,000-140,000 buboneka mu bihugu nka; Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Lesotho na Afurika y'Epfo. Bavuga indimi zose za Khoe, Kx’a n’indimi zo mu miryango y’aba Tuu.

Aba San batuye muri Afurika y'Epfo mu myaka irenga 3000, bakaba bazwi nk’ubwoko bwa mbere muri Afurika bumaze imyaka myinshi, ndetse bikaba bishoboka ko ari nabwo bwoko bwa mbere ku isi bumaze imyaka myinshi. Abakurambere b’aba San biyomoye ku yandi moko mu myaka irenga 100,000 ishize. Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko aba San bo muri Botswana bakoraga imigenzo mu myaka irenga 70,000 yashize.






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  • Kalisa9 months ago
    Ibi bibaye ari ukuri bible yaba ari ikinyoma.


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