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Indwara z’ibyorezo zitera isi yose guhangayika

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:2/11/2019 13:18
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Ushobora kuba wararwaye ibicurane, inkorora se, cyangwa umutwe ariko ibi bisanzwe. Hari igihe indwara iba isa n'isanzwe, wumva uyizi, kuko wayirwayeho, ariko ukazasanga yari icyorezo gihambaye, ndetse cyica.



Mu mateka y'isi, usanga abantu bafite uburyo babanamo n'ibibakikije, ngo ubuzima bukomeze. Gusa, wakwibaza uburyo bimwe muri ibyo ariho haturuka ibyorezo, indwara z'ibiza, zitwara ubuzima bw'abantu benshi cyane. Ibi byorezo, ahanini usanga binyura mu ndwara zandura ku uburyo bwihuse, ikaba ifashe umubare munini w'ahatuwe igahitana abantu abantu batari bakeya, kandi mugihe gitoya.

Nta gihe kinini gishize twumva, yewe bamwe banagera aho icyorezo cya Ebola cyari cyateye muri Congo. Mu mezi agera kuri 11, iki cyorezo cyari kimaze kwivugana abagera ku 1600. Ubwo hari nyuma y’uko cyivuganye abandi muri Afurika y’Uburengerazuba babarirwa mu 11300. Bivugwa ko byibura izi ndwara z’ibyorezo zihitana umubare w’ abantu bagera kuri miliyoni 3.

Iyi nkuru, iragaruka ku biza bihambaye byabayeho, ndetse bikanatwara ubuzima bw'abatari bacye mu bari batuye isi cyangwa uduce byateyemo.

Icyorezo cya Justinian (541-750)


Iki cyabaye icyorezo cyahitanye abantu benshi mu gihe gitoya. Ku ngoma y’Umwami w’abami Justinian Iw’ubwami bw’abami bwa Roma, ubwami bwa Byzantine muri icyo gihe, iki cyorezo cy’ubushita, cyitiriwe uyu mwami, cyamaze imyaka igera kuri 200. Mu nyandiko zitandukanye, bagaragaza ko cyahereye muri Afurika, bamwe bavuga ko ari muri Ethiopia, abandi bakavuga ko ari muri Egypt. 

Hanyuma, udukoko twanduzaga icyo cyorezo; imbeba, zabaga zarariwe n’inda zanduye, abantu bayitwara ku bindi bice by’isi. Banyuze mu Nyanja, mu nzira z’ubucuruzi, bayitwara ku muzigo yabo, imyambaro bari batwaye, imbeba zari mu mato n’ahandi hose icyanduye cyangwa se uwanduye yabaga yakora. Ubwo ibice byose bya Mediterranean birafatwa, ndetse igira na Constantinople

Aho hose yageze, inyandiko zimwe zivuga ko yahitanye abantu babarirwa muri miliyoni 100, bivuze ko kimwe cyakabiri (½) cyabari batuye isi bari bamaze gushyirwa munsi y’ ubutaka n’ icyorezo cyaterwaga n’ imbeba zabaga zarariwe n’ inda zanduye; zifite agakoko kamenyekanye nka:Yersinia pestis (byari hagati ya 542-546). Ni mugihe izindi nyandiko zigaragaza ko muri ibyo bice byose; Afurika, Asia, ibice bya Mediterranean na Constantinople, ko hapfuye abagera kuri miliyoni 50.

Bitewe n’uburyo abantu bapfaga buri munsi bari benshi cyane muri Constantinople, byageze aho ku umunsi hapfaga hagati y’abantu 5,000 na 10,000. Icyo gihe, ntamyaka yari ikibone, kuko abahinzi benshi bari barashize, ubwo n’ izindi nzego zitandukanye byari uko. Bamwe mu banditsi ba aba Kiristu nka ‘John of Ephesus’, bagiye bavuga ko iki cyorezo ari uburakari buhambaye bw’ Imana, ikaba yarabahannye, bitewe n’amahano yabo. Gusa ntibyari byo, kuko gitera twamubonye. Imbeba n’inda.

Black Death ‘Urupfu rw’umukara’ (1347-1352)


Mu mwaka wa 1334, habayeho amakimbirane yavuyemo intambara hagati y’Abashinwa ndetse na Mongol. Ubwo icyorezo cy’ubushita cyari cyarasakajwe gifata tumwe mu uduce twa Asia, yica abantu benshi mugihe gito. Ntibyagarukiye aho, kuko iki cyorezo cyarakomeje, cyambukanwa n’inyanja yirabura (Black sea). Bitewe n’uko abantu batari bazi icyo barwana nacyo, bibwiraga ko kwihisha cywangwa se kujya ahandi kitazabasangayo. Nyamara ntibyari ukuri, kuko zambeba zabaga zuzuyeho inda zanduye aka gakoko, nizo zakomezaga kwanduza bamwe muribo ndetse bakanazitwara ahandi, banyuze mu nzira z’ubucuruzi.

Uko niko aba Mongol babigenje, ubwo bateraga agace kitwaga Kaffa (Feodosya, Ukraine), ngo bakigarurire kuko kari gakomeye mu ubutunzi bw’ubucuruzi. Aho, byari mu mwaka wa 1346. Gusa, iby’izingabo mu gitero muri Kaffa, ntabwo byabahiriye, kuko n’indwara ubwayo yari imaze kubamara. 

Mu ukwihorera, bafashe imirambo y’ abari bishwe n’indwara, bakajya bayijugunya ku nkuta za Kaffa. Ubu bwicanyi bw’ imbeba n’inda, bwateye ubwoba abacuru n’abakungu bo muri Kaffa, hanyuma berekeza iy’amazi, bafata amato, berekera inzira y’amazi magari. Ubwo, bitwaje indwara mu mbeba zihetse inda zirwaye, ndetse nabo ubwabo barwaye, bisanga mu Ubutaliyani (Italy), Sicily. Aha, haba hatangiye icyabaye icyiza ku umugabane w’Uburayi.

Ubwo, kuva mu mwaka wa 1347 kugera mu mwaka wa 1352, Umugabane w’Uburayi wari ubonye ikitarigeze kubaho. Abantu barapfa umutsi ku uwundi. Ubwo mu mwaka wa 1348, indwara yari imaze kugera I Marseille, Paris, Ubudage (Germany),ndetse na Spain,hanyuma England, Norwaymu 1349. Bidatinze, ubwo n’uburasirazuba bw’ Uburayi nabwo bwari bwamaze kurengerwa n’iki cyorezo. Imibare, igaragaza ko mu myaka itanu yonyi, uburayi bwari bumaze guhomba ubuzima bw’ abagera kuri miliyoni 25

Bivuze ko, kimwe cya gatatu (1/3) cy'abari bahatuye, bari bakuweho n’icyo cyago cy’ubushita. Nk’aho ibyo bitari bihagije, abantu bumvaga ko iki ari igihano bahawe na Rurema, hanyuma bahuka mu Bayahudi, babahora ko ngo batemeraga Yesu nk’umwana w’Imana, ndetse ko ngo aribo banaroze amariba yabo. Hanyuma babica; babamanika, babatwika, yewe baranabaroha. Ibyo, nabyo ntibyabanyura, batangira ibikorwa byo kwibabaza, bakikubita bikomeretsa, ngo bikureho ibicumuro.

Ukuri ni uko ibi biza, n’ ibindi tutavuzeho, bihurira ku kintu kimwe. Umwanda. Kugira ngo utu dukoko twanduza cyangwa dukwira kwiza izi ndwara z’ibyorezo, dukenere imibererho ngo twororoke, yewe ngo tunahindure kamere yatwo. Iyo nzira y’ikura ryatwo, ni mu mwanda. Ubwo uhise wumva impamvu badusaba gukara intoki kenshi n’isabune, gutema ibihuru hafi y’ingo, kugirira isuku ibyo kurya, ibyo kuriraho, ndetse n’ibindi muri rusange. Ibyo iyo bikozwe neza ntabwo ibyorezo nka Ebola, Malaria, cholera, Zika,Tuberculosis, ndetse n’ibindi bitandukanye biterwa n’umwanda biba bikibonetse.

Ni ahawe rero, ngo ukurikize inama uhabwa ngo ukomeze usigasire ubuzima bwawe n’ubw’abandi muri rusange. Kuko ibi byorezo birandura (mu mwuka, mu maraso, n’andi matembabuzi y’umuntu).

SIDA: Mu mwaka wa 2017,CDC igaragaza ko habonetse ibibazo bishya by’abanduye agakoko gatera ubwandu bwa SIDA bagera kuri miliyoni 1.8. ndetse ko, hari abageraga kuri miliyoni 36.9 bababana n’ako gakoko.

Cholera: Iyi ni indwara ifata mumara, bikaba bitewe no kuba umuntu yanyoye amazi adasukuye cyangwa se kurya ibidasukuye. Iyi ndara, iterwa na bacteria izwi nka ‘Vibrio cholerae’. Ubushakashatsi, bwagaragaje ko buri mwaka abagera kuri miliyoni 1.3 na miliyoni 4 bandura iyi ndwara. Muri abo, hapfamo abari hagati ya 21 000 na 143 000 ku isi hose.

Malaria: ‘Gukinga amadirishya kare, gutema ibigunda biri hafi y’aho dutuye, gusiba ibidendezi by’ibizima biri hafi y’ingo zacu, kurara mu nzitira mibu,…’ zimwe mu nama duhabwa ngo twirinde indwara ya Malaria. Kurumwa n’umubu wa ‘Anopheles’, hanyuma uka wakandura malaria. Ubushakashatsi bwa WHO, bugaragaza ko mu mwaka wa 2017 malaria yahitanye abantu 435,000. Gusa 403,000 muri bo, (93%), bari batuye mu bice by’Afurika.

Ibibazo by’indwara mu isi biracyari byinshi. Ubutumwa buhora ku maradiyo na za televiziyo, ndetse n’ahandi dukura amakuru, ni ugukomeza kwirinda, kwivuriza ku gihe, igihe wafashwe, ndetse no gutanga amakuru ku gihe. Bitari ibyo, indwara zirakomeza gutwara ubuzima bw’abatari bake, yaba mu bacu dukunda, ndetse n’abimahanga.

Src: who.intworldvision.org,cdc.gov, worldatlas.comcnn.combritannica.comjmvh.org

Umwanditsi: Faridi Muhawenimana-Inyarwanda.com






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