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Urugamba rwa Waterloo: Umunsi washyize akadomo ku ntambara yayogoje uburayi imyaka 20

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:31/10/2019 20:21
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Mu mwaka wa 1815 ni bwo ingabo ibihumbi byasakiraniye ku butaka bw’u Bubirigi ahitwa Waterloo. Uruhande rumwe rwariruyobowe n’umwami w’abami Napoleon I (Napoleon Bonaparte), urundi rukayoborwa na duc Wellington. Uru ni urugamba rwashyize akadomo ku buhangange bwa Napoleon.



Biragoye kuvuga ku rugamba rwa Waterloo n’ukuntu rwashyize iherezo ku buhangange bwa Napoleon Bonaparte n’intambara yayogoje Uburaya mu gihe cye utabanje kumuvugaho. Uyu Napoleon yavukiye ku kirwa cya Corsica kiri mu nyanja ya Mediterane, ku itariki ya 15 Kanama 1769. Iki kirwa yavukiyeho  cyari icy’Ubutariyani nubwo cyaje kujya mu maboko y’Abafaransa birangira n’abahatuye babaye Abafaransa. Ni ngombwa na none kuvuga ko n’izina rye ryahindutse ubwo yabaga Umufaransa dore ko ryari Buonaparte.

Ubuhangange bwa Napoleon mu gisirikare


Uyu Napoleon Bonaparte ubwo yasozaga amashuri ye makuru ya gisirikare. N’ubwo yigeze kuva mu gisirikare mu ntangiro y’impingiro y’impinduramatwara, nyuma gato yaje kongera kugisubiramo. Napoleon yaje kujya agaragara mu manama y’abari inyuma y’impinduramatwara y’Abafaransa, yemwe yaje no kuba inshuti ya Maximilien Robespierre na murumuna we Augustin Robespierre, bari inkingi za mwamba muri iyo mpinduramatwara. 

Muri icyo gihe, Napoleon yaje kuzamurwa mu gisirikare agirwa general de brigade. Kuba inshuti na ba Robespierre ntibyamuguye neza ubwo bo bicwaga we yaje gufungwa azira ubwo bucuti baribafitanye. Mu mwaka wa 1795 Ubufaransa bwugarijwe n’abanzi b’impinduramatwara, abo Napoleon yarabarwanyije bituma yongera kuzamurwa mu ntera agirwa generari majoro. Nyuma yo kuzamurwa mu ntera, Napoleon yagiye atsinda cyane ku rugamba. Urugero: nk’ingabo zatsinze abanya Austria ni we wari uziyoboye.

Urugendo rwa Napoleon mu butegetsi

Kubera ubuhangange yagiye agaragaza, Napoleon yaje kugirirwa icyizere asabwa na leta yariho, yitwaga “Directoire” ngo azayobora intambara barikugaba ku Bwongereza. Ibyo we yabyamaganiye kure kuko yabonaga ko Ubufaransa budafite ubushobozi buhagije bwo kurwanya amato y’intambara y’Abongereza, ahubwo atanga igitekerezo cyo gutera Egiputa (Egypt), ibyo byaremejwe kandi biraba. Muri icyo gitekerezo cye yaragamije gufunga inzira y’ubucuruzi yahuzaga Ubwongereza n’Ubuhindi. 

Uyu Napoleon ntiyagarukiye aho kuko n’ubwami bw’abami bwa Ottoman na bwo yaje kurwana nabwo gato. Napoleon yaje gusinga ingabo ze mu mahanga asubira i Paris. Ubwo Ubufaransa bwari bwugarijwe n’ibibazo imbere mu gihugu ndetse n’inyuma ya bwo mu Guahyingi k’umwaka wa 1799, agatsiko gato k’abantu barimo Napoleon bahigitse ubutegetsi bwari ho ndetse banabushinja kuba abanyantege nke. Nyuma yo guhigika ubwo butegetsi Napoleon yagizwe “Consule”. Mu mwaka wa 1804, uyu Bonaparte yigize umwami w’abami(emperor) w’Ubufaransa.

Kugwa kwa mbere kw’ igihangange Napoleon I

Nyuma yo kuba umwami w’abami akitwa Napoleon I yagerageje kwagura imbibi z’igihugu cye kandi biramukundira. Muri urwo rugendo rwe rwo kwigarurira amahanga, hari ibihugu cyangwa ubwami bitarebye neza iki gikorwa cye. Urugero nk’Ubwongereza bwabonaga ko intambara za Napoleon agaba ku bihugu cyangwa ubwami bwari mu Burayi bihungabanya ubukungu bwabwo cyane cyane mu bijyanye n’uko bwahahiranaga n’ibyo bihugu cyangwa ubwami. 

Mu mwaka wa 1812, Napoleon yayoboye ingabo ze mu Burusiya, aha ingabo ze zarahatikiriye cyane. Nyuma gato mu mwaka wa 1813, ingabo zihuje zo mu bwami bwa Prussia, Russia, Austria na Sweden zirwanyije ingabo z’ Abafaransa mu rugamba rwa Leipzig ndetse Napoleon aratsindwa. Ntibyarangiriye mu rugamba rwa Leipzig ahubwo izo ngabo zihuje zaje no kuzigarurira Paris umurwa mukuru w’Ubufaransa. Nyuma yo kwigarirurirwa k’umujyi Paris, mu mwaka wa 1814, Napoleon yaciriwe ku kirwa cya Elba.

Urugamba rwashyize iherezo ku bwami bwa Napoleon


Nyuma yuko atsindiwe n’ingabo zishyize hamwe ndetse agacibwa, ibihugu byamurwanyije byimitse umwami Louis XVIII ngo asimbure Napoleon. Nyuma y’umwaka, ku itariki 26 Gashyantare 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte yatoretse ikirwa cya Elba yerekeza i Paris. Mu rugendo rwe agana ku murwa mukuru yari kumwe n’abarwanashyaka be igihumbi. Ku itariki ya 20 Werurwe uyu Napoleon yaserutse i Paris n’abarwanashyaka be, umwami Louis XVIII akibyumva arihungira.

Kugaruka mu Bufaransa kwa Naapoleon ntinyaguye neza Ubwami bwari bwishyize hamwe bukamurwanya. Na none igikorwa cyo guhigika ku butegetsi umwami Louis XVIII baribimitse byagaragaye nko kobashotora, nuko biyemeza kongera kumurwanya. Napoleon inkuru yo kumurwanya yayakiriye bwangu ahitamo kuzarwanya aba banzi be mbere yuko bishyira hamwe ngo batazarusha umubare ingabo ze bikamuviramo gutssindwa bwa kabiri.

Igitekerezo cyo kurwanya abanzi be abatunguye kandi batandukanye rugikubita byaramuhiriye ariko biba iby’igihe gito. Ubwo yerekezaga mu Bubirigi aho ingabo z’abanzi be zari, yarwanyije ingabo z’aba Prussia ku itariki ya 16 Kamena 1815 ndetse urwo rugamba rwiswe urwa Ligny ararutsinda. Izi ngabo za abanya Prussia zari ziyobowe na Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher.

Nyuma y’iminsi ibiri atsinze urugamba rwa Ligny yerekeje ahitwa Waterloo ahari ingabo z’Abongereza, Abahorandi, Ababirigi ndetse n’ Abadage ziyobowe na Arthur Wellesley wari duke wa Wellington. Uru rugamba ntirworoheye impande zombi doreko hagwaga imvura nyinshi cyane. Muri uru rugamba rwa Waterloo hakoreshejwe amayeri menshi ya gisirikare y’icyo gihe. Byabaye nk’ibihira Napoleon ariko nyuma azakugenda atsindwa ubwo Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher n’ingabo ze bazaga guha imusanzu Arthur Wellesley.

Nyuma yo kubona ko urugamba rumunaniye yaje gusiga ingabo ze ku rugamba arahunga. Uru rugamba rwa Waterloo ni rwo rwashyize akadomo ku ntambara yari imaze imyaka 20 i Burayi. Si ugusoza intambara gusa uru rugamba rwasize ahubwo rwarangije icyitwa ubuhangange bwose bwa Napoleon wariwongeye kwisubiza ubutegetsi n’ubwo yabumaranye iminsi ijana gusa. Napoleon yapfiriye ku kirwa Saint Hellen ku itariki ya 5 Gicurasi 1821. Cancer y’igifu ni yo yahitanye iki gihangange.

Umwanditsi: Mukama Christian-InyaRwanda.com






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