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Amateka y’ikizamini cy'isuzumabwenge kizwi nka Intelligent Quotients (IQ), uko wamenya igipimo cy’ubwenge bwawe n'uko wabwongera!

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:26/07/2019 13:36
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IQ ni ikizamini mpuzamahanga gikoreshwa mu gupima ingano y’ubwenge kikaba gikorwa n'ingeri zitandukanye hashingiwe kuri nyir'ubwite. IQ yazanywe bwa mbere n'inzobere Paul Broca na Sir Francis Galton bakaba barayitangije bareba ingano y'umutwe bakaba ari byo bagenderaho mu kureba umunyabwenge byaje kuvanwaho n'inzobere Simon na Binet.



IQ n’ikizamini cyagiye gikoreshwa n’inzego zitandukanye, aha twavuga nk’igisirikare cya Amerika mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi barayikoresheje mu gutoranya abasirikare bashya. Iki kizamini cyatangijwe biturutse ku gitegerezo cy'inzobere ebyiri ari zo Paul Broca na Sir Galton ahanaga 1800s, aho batangiye bapima ubwenge bwa muntu bagendeye ku ngano y’umutwe.

 Ntabwo byaje kubahira kuko baje gusanga ntaho ingano y’umutwe ihuriye n’ubwenge aba afite. Nyuma ya ba banyabwenge babiri nibwo uwitwa Wilhelm Wundt yaje we apima ingano y’ubwenge agendeye ku mitekereze ya muntu, hashingiwe ku bikorwa ndetse akareba n’uburyo umuntu yitwara mu kibazo ashaka kugikemura. Muri 1904 nibwo minisitiri wari ushinzwe uburezi mu Bufaransa yasabye inzobere mubumenyi (science)  Alfred Bine na Theodore Simon ko bazamushakira uburyo bajya bakoresha mu kureba ubwenge bw'abana bato bikajya bibafasha gushaka abana bari ku rwego rwo hejuru mu gutekereza, abana basanzwe mu mitekerereze ndetse n'abandi bari kurwego rwo hasi.

Izi nzobere ziricara zikora igipimo cy’ububwenge cyari cyahawe izina rya Simon-Binet IQ test, iki kizamini cyaje kwamamara mu burayi ndetse no muri America cyane.

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Izi nzobere ntabwo iki kizamini bagitangije baha ibintu abana bigaga mu ishuri, bakoresheje ibibazo bisaba gutekereza byo mu buzima busanzwe, bitandukanye n'ibyo bigaga mu ishuri, babazaga ibi bibazo bitewe n’imyaka abana babaga bafite. Gusa Simon na Binet bavuze ko hari umwana muto washoboraga gusubiza neza kurusha  umuntu mukuru; baje gutangaza ko umwana wabashaga gutsinda ibi bibazo no mu ishuri yatsindaga neza, byatumye banzura ko iki gipimo cyatanze umusaruro mu kumenya abanyabwenge bo hejuru ndetse n'abanyabwenge baringaniye.

Muri 1916 nibwo inzobere mu bijyanye n'imitekereze ya muntu wo muri leta z’ubumwe za America Lewis Terman yaje kugendera ku gipimo cya Simon-Binet IQ test akora igipimo cyo gukoreshwa n'abanyamerika acyita Stanford-Binet intelligence test nyuma cyaje kwamamara ku izina rya Intellingent Quotient(IQ) ari naryo tukizi magingo aya nk'inzira y'ipimabwenge.

Itandukaniro riri hagati y’ubwenge n’ubumenyi [wisdom(intelligent) and knowledge(skills) 

Aya magambo kenshi ku bantu batabizi neza dukunda kuyitiranya nyamara ntabwo aribyo, binatuma akenshi dufata inzobere mu mibare cyangwa mu bugenge nk'aho ari bo banyabwenge nyamara sibyo, bikaba bizanatuma nubona umuntu wateye imbere mu bucuruzi atarigeze agira amahirwe yo kuminuza amashuri ahambaye uzavuga ngo nta bwenge azi kandi atari byo.

Ubwenge ni igipimo cyangwa ikintu kidufasha mu miteckerereze yacu yo mubuzima busanzwe  ikaba n'intwaro idufasha kwiga cyangwa kugira ikindi kintu tumenya; naho ubumenyi ni ibintu twiga cyangwa tumenya mu gihe twabyize. Urugero: umuntu umwe ashobora kugira ubumenyi mu mategeko undi akagira ubumenyi mu mibare. Aha niho benshi tugirira urujijo ushobora kwibaza uti ese umukinnyi w'umupira w'amagaruguru aba ari umunyabwenge kimwe n'inzobere mu bugenge(Physics)? Aha ihame ni uko bose ari abanyabwenge ahubwo bafite ubumenyi butandukanye. 

Igihari ni uko aba bantu bose icyo bahuriyeho ari uko ibyo bakora byose bibasaba gutekereza cyane ndetse bikaza kurangira buri wese abikoze neza. Nufata izi nzobere ukazicaza bakajya mu kizamini cy’ubugenge, wa wundi ufite ubumenyi mu bugenge azatsinda noneho nubajyana mu kibuga ngo bajye gukina nta kabuza wawundi ufite ubumenyi mu mupira w'amagururu azatsinda ku kigero cyo hejuru. ikindi gishoboka ni uko umuntu ashobora kuba umunyabumenyi mu ngeri zitandukanye. Urugero: umuntu ashobora kuba ari inzobere mu mibare, akaba n’umuhanga mu gukina umupira cyangwa mu kuririmba. 

Hari n'igihe ushobora kwiga ikintu bikarangira kukigiramo ubumenyi byanze neza ariyo mpamvu abahanga ndetse n'inzobere mu ngeri zitandukanye batanga inama yo gukora ibintu umuntu akunda kuko ari byo byoroha kandi bikagira akamaro.

Ese Intelligent Quotients ipimwa gute?Related imageMu gupima ubwenge bwa muntu, bafata icyitwa mental age bakagabanya icyitwa chronological age nyuma bagakuba n'ijana. Mental age ni imyaka ibarwa hagendewe ku ngano uriho mu mitekereze cyangwa mu bikorwa byawe ndetse hakarebwa n'ingano y'abantu muri mu kigero kimwe cy'imyaka; naho chronological age ni imyaka umuntu aba amaze avutse nk'uko dusanzwe tubikora iyo turi kuvuga igihe tumaze ku isi. 

Aha ushobora guhita wibaza uti 'Mental age imenyekana gute?' Mental age yo imenyekana hifashishijwe inzobere mu mitekereze ya muntu aho afata umuntu akamubaza ibibazo hakurikijwe ingano y'imyaka asanzwe afite. Nyuma yo kumenya mental age yifashishwa mu gupima ubwenge bwa muntu nk'uko twabibonye, IQ=(Mental age/Chronical age)*100. Aha niho uzumva ngo runaka afite IQ ya 200, bamwe mu bantu bazwi cyane twavuga nka Einstein Robert wabaye inzobere mu bugenge akaba yari afite IQ=160. Kuva iki gipimo cyatangizwa, umuntu wagize IQ nini ni umunya Singapore ufite IQ=263 bamwita Ainan Celeste Cawley.

Imikoresherezwe y’igipimo cy’ubwenge(IQ) mu gisirikare cya America.Image result for images of us soldiers IQNyuma y'intambara ya mbere y’isi, igisirikare cya Amerika cyakoreshe igipimo cy’ubwenge mu gusuzuma abantu babaga bashaka kujya mu gisirikare. Icyo bivuze ni uko muri iki gihe baba bashaka abantu bafite ubwenge bwo hejuru kugira ngo ku rugamba bazitware neza. Gusa ntabwo America yabikoze ibyita IQ ahubwo babyitaga Army Alpha&Beta tests biturutse ku gitekerezo cya Robert Yerkes Wari Inzobere mu bijyanye n'imitecyereze ya muntu(psychologist) akaba n'umwe mu bari bashinzwe gutoranya ingabo.

Army alpha bwari uburyo bwakoreshwaga mu gusuzuma ubwenge bw'ababaga bazi gusoma bazi n'icyongereza naho Beta tests bwo bwari uburyo bwakoreshwaga basuzuma abatarashoboraga gusoma cyangwa kuvuga icyongereza. Iki gihe hatoranyijwe ingabo zigera kuri miliyoni 2 hakoreshejwe ubu buryo, izi ngabo zabaga zitezweho kwitwara neza kur ugamba ndetse no kuba zavamo abayobozi bo hejuru muri leta kuko babaga bazipimye bagasanga zifite imitekerereze yo hejuru hakoreshejwe uburyo bunoze byatumaga bazizera binashimangirwa n'uko America yatsinze mu ntambara ya kabiri y'isi.

Benshi mu nzobere bahamya ko ibi nabyo byo gutoranya abasirikare b'abanyabwenge biri mu byabafashije. Iri ni naryo tandukaniro ry’ibihugu byateye imbere n'ibihugu bicyiyubaka kuko mu bihugu bicyiyubaka abantu bajya mu gisirikare abenshi ni abo kwiga biba byarananiye binagendana no kuba mu bijyanye n'ubwenge baba bari hasi.

Ese Igipimo cyubwenge(IQ) cyaba gikoreshwa Muri Africa?

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Magingo aya iki gipimo gikoreshwa mu gusuzuma ubwenge ntabwo muri Afrika cyari cyatangira gukoreshwa gusa hari abajya kugikorera i Burayi cyangwa muri Amerika kuko umunyafurika wagaragaye nk'umuntu ufite IQ nini kurusha abandi ni umunyanijeriya witwa Philip Emeagwali ufite IQ=190, uyu akaba ari inzobere mu mibare, mu bugenge ndetse no mu bumenyi bwa mudasobwa.

Ese kugira IQ ihanitse hari aho bihuriye n’ubutunzi bwa muntu?

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Ibi inzobere zitandukanye ntizibyemeranyaho yuko umuntu ufite igipimo cy’ubwenge cyo hejuru ar iwe ugira ubutunzi buhambaye. Basobanura ko kubera ukuntu aba bantu baba bafite inyota yo kumenya ibintu byinshi akenshi ubuzima bwabo babumara bakora ibintu byinshi dore ko akenshi bakunze no kuba abarimu cyangwa abakozi b'ibigo bihanitse bityo ugasanga mu mibereho yabo nta nyota yo gutunga byinshi bafite. Aha twavuga nka Einstein Robert n'abandi nka ba Stephan Hawking. Aba nta mitungo ihambaye bari bafite, ikindi ni uko kubera aya matsiko baba bafite bamara umwanya munini muri za laburatwari cyangwa batekereza cyane, ibyo gutekereza ibucuruzi biba bigoranye.

Gusa harimo ababa abakire babikesheje iyi ngabire y’ubwenge twavuga nka Bill Gates ufite IQ=160  na Steve Jobs nawe wari ufite IQ= 160, Einstein na Hawking bari bafite IQ=160 bose hamwe n'ubwo bakoze iki kizamini mu bihe bitandukanye ariko bo ntabwo binjiye mu bijyanye no kumenya byinshi bijyanye nisanzure. Bill Gates, umukire wa gatatu ku isi yakoresheje ubwenge abona ubumenyi arangije atekereza n'uburyo bwo kubukoresha ngo bumubyarire amafaranga ari nabyo bigezweho.

Gusa benshi mu bakoze ubu bushakashatsi bemeza ko abantu bafite igipimo cy'ubwenge kiri hagati, ko ari bo bakunze kugira ibigo noneho babandi bafite uburenze bakaza bagakora muri ibi bigo. Ibi bikunda kugarukwaho akenshi biturutse ku ijambo Bill Gates yigeze gutangaza ubwo yari yasuye ishuri rya Harvard yizemo yanaje kuvamo atarangije kwiga, ati "abanyeshuri twiganye ari abahanga bandusha ubu hafi ya bose bakora mu kigo cya Microsoft  kandi Microsoft ni iyanjye”. Ibi yabivuze hivanzemo kwishongora gusa anashikariza abantu batari abahanga cyane mu ishuri kutiheba ngo bumve ko birangiye. 

Ibyo wakora kugirango IQ yawe yiyongere

Inzobere zitandukanye zemeza ko ibikorwa byacu bya buri munsi nabyo bishobora kugira aho bitugeza mu myagukire y'ibitekerezo. Benshi bahuriza ku kuba abantu bajya basoma cyane muri macye tukaba abanyeshuri igihe cyose, ibi bikadufasha kwagura imitekerereze yacu. Gukora imyitozo ngororamubiri, gukora imyitozo y'ubwonko urugero gutekereza utuje(meditation) no gukina imikino ya video game cyangwa indi mikino idusaba gutekereza cyane nibura iminota 20 buri munsi. kwirinda gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge, kuruhuka bihagije ndetse no kurya indyo yuzuye nk'uko tubikesha iqtestprep.com.

IQ za bamwe mu bantu bakomeye ku isi:

VLADIMIR PUTIN =127Image result for images of IQ in vladimir putin

DONALD TRUMP =156

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JAY-Z=125Image result for images of jay z

MARK ZUCKERBERG =152

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BARACK OBAMA= 155

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GEORGE WASHINGTON=140Related image

Gusa nk'uko twabivuze haruguru, ingano ya IQ akenshi ijya ihabana n'iterambere rya muntu. Inzobere mu bategura iki kizamini cy'isuzumabwenge zivuga ko akenshi ku bantu bamaze kugikora bakamenya uko bahagaze bijya bibafasha mu guhitamo, icyo bakora kuko inzobere mu mitekerereze ya muntu zivuga ko umuntu ufite IQ iri hejuru kugira ngo abe umuyobozi biba bigoye.

Iki gipimo cy'ubwenge bavuga ko umuntu usanzwe, urugero akenshi ukora cyangwa wiga byamutwaye umwanya munini ari nacyo cyiciro abatuye isi hafi ya bose barimo, aba afite hagati 70-120, naho abantu bamwe akenshi baba batanashobora kwiga cyangwa ugasanga no kugenda byaranze muri macye hari ibice by'umubiri byanze gukomera cyangwa gukora, bo baba bari hasi ya 70, abafite 120-130 ni abanyabwenge bo hejuru, naho 130+ bo ni abanyabwenge bakabije cyane ari na cyo kiciro dusangamo abantu bakoze ibintu by'igenzi ku isi. 

sources: snopes.com,iflscience.com,verwellmind.com,sciencedaily.com......








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