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Dark web: Ubujura bw’ikoranabuhanga, gucuruza ibiyobyabwenge, abantu na filime z’urukozasoni biremewe

Yanditswe na: Aloys Niyonyungu
Taliki:1/10/2022 12:06
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Ni kimwe mu bicye bitatu bya Web ari byo Surface web, Deep web na Dark web nyirizina, urubuga rw’ibanga rukorera kuri murandasi, rukorerwaho ibikorwa byose bitemewe n'amategeko harimo nko gucuruza ibiyobyabwenge, abantu, gushimuta no kwerekana amashusho y’urukozasoni.



Dark web imaze gukanga imitima y'abatuye isi, izwi nk'iyavutse mu 2000 ikozwe n'umunyeshuri wo muri kaminuza ya Edinburgh, Ian Clarke, aho yahisemo gukora ubundi buryo abantu bajya batumanaho ariko mu buryo bwihariye.

Ni uburyo bw'ibanga rikomeye kuko bitazorohera buri muntu wese gukoresha uru rubuga. Gusa rwaje kuba urubuga rukoreshwa n'abakomeye by'umwiharko abafite amabanga akomeye yo kuganira no guhisha.

Dark Web iherereye mu gace kakabiri ka Web (Deep web), gusa mu kubitondeka Dark web bakunze kuyitandukanya na Deep web. Bivugwako 90% y'imbuga zose ziba muri deep web, urugero ni nk'amakuru yo mu bigo bya Leta, aha rero muri deep web ni ho habamo na Dark web.

Dark web ni agace ka murandasi kinjirwamo n'ufite porogaramu (application) ya The Onion Router (TOR) yashyize muri mudasobwa ye cyangwa telefoni ye. Gusa nanone abantu benshi ntabwo bakoresha uru rubuga kabone nubwo baba bafite iyi porogaramu (TOR) yemewe 100% n'amategeko.

Intego ya Ian Clarke wakoze iyi porogaramu, ni ukurema uburyo bwo gutumanaho mu ibanga abantu biyoberanyije ariko babinyujije kuri murandasi. Mu gukora iki gikorwa, yahisemo guhimba icyiswe TOR project yasojwe mu mwaka wa 2002 igashyirwa ku mugaragaro mu mwaka wa 2008.

Ni mu gihe andi makuru avuga ko igitekerezo cy’uyu mushinga cyatangiye mu mwaka 1990, kabone nubwo waje gushirwa ahagaragara nyuma ukanatangira kumenyekana mu 2008.


Itsinda ry'abashakashatsi n'abahanga bakoze icyitwa TOR project ndetse n'abandi benshi bagize uruhare mu gushoboka kw’uyu mushinga, bahujwe n’imyemerere n’impanvu imwe yo gutuma habaho icyo bise Private web bise Dark web.

Ni Porogaramu ifite abo yagenewe, idashobora mbese ku buryo hari bamwe badashobora kuyikoresha kabone n'iyo baba ari abakire bakomeye. Mu gihe ntaburenganzira bafite, ntibashobora kwinjira muri iyo porogaramu ya Dark web (urubuga rw’umwijima).

TOR ikimara gushyirwa ahagaragara, abantu babonye uburyo bwiza bwo gukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga bigoranye ko bamenyekana ndetse bitanashoboka ko bakurikiranwa kuko ikoze mu buryo ifite inzira zisaga 1000 zo kwiyoberanya no gukingira ikibaba abayikoresha.

Abakoresha uru rubuga rwa Dark web bakoresha inzira yinshi z'ibanga ku buryo kubatahura bigoye cyane. 98% bw’ubujura bukorerwa kuri murandasi bukorwa na bamwe mu bakoresha urubuga rwa Dark web, maze muri za nzira nyinshi zo gukwepa bakarindagiza abagerageza kubatahura, babinyujije kuri murandasi.

ESE GUKORESHA DARK WEB BYEMEWE N'AMATEGEKO?

Gukoresha uru rubuga bifatwa nk'icyaha muri rusange kandi ni urubuga rwemewe n'amategeko 100%, kuko hari n'uburyo bwiza rukoreshwamo bigirira abantu akamaro. Ariko ahanini rukunze gukoreshwa na Leta z’ibihugu bikomeye ku bw’inyungu zabwo.

Igisirikare cya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za America gikoresha Dark web mu gutumanaho mu buryo butemerera umwanzi kubumviriza. Ibihugu biyikoresha mu buryo bwo kuneka no kudashyira ku mugaragaro uburyo bwa politiki yabo, ndetse n'ubundi buryo uyikoresha yaba yifuza kutamenyekana ku bwumutekano we.

Kubera kutamenyekana kw'abakoresha uru rubuga, rwemerera abakora ibikorwa binyuranije n'amategeko urugero ni icuruzwa ry'abantu, ibiyobyabwenge, intwaro, ibikorwa by'urukozasoni nibindi bintu bishobora gushyira ubuzima bwa muntu mukaga.

Ni nyuma yaho izindi mbuga zabigerageje zagiye zifatwa harimo nka Silk Road, AlphaBay, na Hansa. Kutamenyekana kw'abarukoresha byanateje ikibazo cy'ibikorwa by'umutekano muke mu ikoranabuhanga kurenza ibinyejana bike bishize.

Nibura buri munsi ku isi haterwa ibitero by’ikoranabuhanga bingana na 3,809,4483, ni mugihe ku isaha ari 158,727, kwisogonda ni 2,645. Ibi bitero byose hejuru ya 70% bituruka ku gatsiko katazwi gakoresha urubuga rw’umwijima (Dark web). 

Kwiba, gukora ubucuruzi butemewe no gukwirakwiza amwe mu mashusho y’urukozasoni byemewe na ba nyiri Dark web kuko biri mu bintu bibinjiriza amafaranga menshi.


Umwanditsi: Freddy Rwigema - inyaRwanda.com








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