Kigali

Byose biri ku gasozi! Menya byinshi kuri Application yitwa 'Pegasus' bivugwa ko ikoreshwa na za leta mu kuneka rubanda (Spying)

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:23/07/2021 7:45
0

Pegasus ni application imwe mu nzira zishyirwa mu majwi ko ishobora kuba ikoreshwa mu kwinjirira abantu, gusa ahanini igakoreshwa na za leta zigamije kumenya impumeko ya rubanda n'abatavuga rumwe nazo. Ese Pegasus ikora ite, yubatswe na nde, yari agamije iki? Gukoresha Pegasus uneka nibura abantu 10 bitwara arenga Miliyari Frw.



Impinduramatwara mu ntambara z’umuhenerezo mu batuye Isi! 

Mu minsi yo hambere kurwana cyangwa amakimbirane y'abari batuye Isi yakemurwaga no kurwana hakoreshejwe imiheto, imyambi ndetse n’amafarashi, gusa ibyabaye kuva mu kinyejana cya 19 kugeza n'ubu mu cya 21 benshi mu bayituye ntabwo baba bazi iyo biva n'iyo bijya.

Ese Pegasus ni iki? Ikora ite? Ikoreshwa nande? Ayikoresha agamije iki? Ese ubundi yishyura angahe ayishyura nde?

Ijambo Pegasus rikoreshwa bwa mbere ryaturutse ku ba gereki aho mu myemerere yabo icyo bitaga Pegasus yari ifarashi ifite amababa, gusa mu myemerere yabo yari ikigirwamana cyari gifite ikivukanyi cyacyo kitwaga Chrysaor kikagira nyirarume wacyo witwaga Geryon.

Ubusobanuro bw’ijambo Pegasus mu magambo asanzwe ni urumuri, iki kigirwamana kikaba cyaritabazwaga mu gihe cy'imvura y’umuhindo kugira ngo kizage kirwanya imirabyo ndetse n’ikubita ry’inkuba.

Mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe na Dr. Michael Brown avuga ko imyemerere y'Abagereki yababwiraga ko iki kigirwamana kubera ibintu byari bimeze nk’amababa cyari gifite cyayakoresha mu guhagarika inkuba ndetse n’imirabyo aho cyayifataga kikayijyana ku kigirwamana kitwaga Zeus.

Hashingiwe ku mirimo bizeraga ko iki kirwamana cyakoraga ni yo mpamvu bagifataga nk'ifarashi ifite amababa kubera ubushobozi bizeraga ko cyari gifite ndetse bakizera ko cyari gifite imbaraga zikomeye byatumaga bagifata nk'ikidahangarwa.

Nonese iri koranabuhanga ryahawe akabyiniro ka Pegasus rikora rite? Kuki se nta banga riri kuri murandasi? 

Izina Pegasus ryaje rivuye mu mwizerere ya cyera, ubu ryaserutse mu myizerere y’ikinyejana cya 21 ari yo ishingiye ku ikoranabuhanga rihambaye. Kuri uyu munsi ikizwi nka Pegasus ni application yubatswe n'abanya Israel binyuze mu kigo cya NSO Group, gusa ntawuzi igihe iyi application yatangiriye kubakwa, ariko benshi bavuga ko yatangiye gukora byeruye mu 2016. 

Ubu irimo gukoreshwa mu ngeri nyinshi zitandukanye cyane cyane mu butasi bwimbitse bw’ibihugu n'abaturage cyangwa abatavuga rumwe na za leta zabo bose, uku kubaneka kukaba gukorwa hagamije kumenya ibyo undi ahugiyemo cyangwa ibyo avuga akoresheje telefone.

Iyi application bivugwa ko iki kigo kiyigurisha n’abantu bashaka kuneka umuntu runaka cyangwa ikaba yakoreshwa ku muntu ushaka kumenya amakuru menshi aturutse hirya no hino, gusa ahanini ikoreshwa na za leta zigamije kumenya intumbero iri muri rubanda cyangwa abatavuga rumwe nazo.  

Ese Pegasus ikora ite? 

Iyo hari umuntu ushakwaho amakuru barayimwoherereza binyuze mu guhimba nimero ya telefone bagahamagara uwo bashaka binyuze kuri WhatsApp ahanini, akenshi ntabwo bisaba ko yitaba icy'inyenzi ni uko aba yahamagawe gusa. Muri iyi minsi hagaragaye amakuru avuga ko muri iyi minsi bitari gusaba ko unekwa ahamagarwa cyangwa ko amenye ikiri kujya mbere ahubwo bikorwa hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga.

Ni iki Pegasus imenya k'uwinjiriwe nayo? 

Iyi application ifite ubushobozi bwo kumenya ibyo avuga, abo bavugana, aho aherereye, aho ajya hose, ibyo akora, amafoto yifotora, ubutumwa yohereza ndetse n’ibindi byinshi umuntu akoresha Telefone.

Ese ni gute Pegasus ishobora kugera kuri telefone?

Iyi application yubatswe n’ikigo gikora ibijyanye no gucunga umutekano “NSO Group” binyuze mu ikoranabuhanga (cyber-security).

Hifashishijwe Pegasus kugira ngo babe bakugabaho igitero cyangwa binjirire abantu bakoresha amatelefone, akenshi binyura mu kuguhamagara kuri whatsApp nk'uko twabivuze haruguru, iyo witabye, iyi application ihita ikugeraho hanyuma ibyo ukora byose bigahita bijya ku gasozi kuko abo uhamagara, abo wandikira, aho ujya hose, Email address, password ibi byose iba ibigaragara.

Hagati ya Mata na Gicurasi mu mwaka wa 2019 ikigo cya WhatsApp cyatangaje ko abagera kuri 1400 batatswe ndetse ko benshi uburyo bwakoreshejwe kugira ngo babagereho banyuze muri uku kubahamara.

Nk'uko tubicyesha ikinyamakuru cya scroll.in bagerageje kuvugana n’abayobozi bakuru ba WhatsApp muri uyu mwaka babajije niba aba bantu ari bo babashije kumenya ko ari bo batatswe gusa, igisubizo cyabaye oya. Bati "Aba ni bo twabashije kubona."

Hashingiwe kuri raporo yatanzwe n’abafite mu nshingano kurebera imikorere y’iki kigo gicuruza Pegasus “NSO Group” yashyizwe hanze yerekana ko iki kigo gifite abakiriya barenga 60 mu bihugu bigera kuri 40 ku Isi, gusa ibi ntabwo bihurirwaho na benshi mu bagiye bakora ubusesenguzi ku mikorere y'iyi application ahubwo ko iyi mibare ari iyo iki kigo ubwacyo cyemera.

Kuri uyu wa 21 Nyakanga 2021 nibwo inkuru yiriwe icicikana mu binyamakuru byinshi byo ku Isi bigaruka ku kwinjirirwa k’umukuru w’igihugu cy’u Bufaransa, Bwana Emmanuel Macron akaba nawe yagiye mu mubare w'abantu batatswe hakoreshejwe iyi Application ifite ikoranabuhanga rihambaye ndetse inakosha menshi ku muntu uyikeneye.

Ese iyi application yaba igura angahe? Igurishwa nande? Avugana nande?

Amafaranga ava mu bakiriya cyangwa abaguzi ba Pegasus yishyurwa iki kigo cy’ikoranabuhanga cyo muri Israel nk'uko ibinyamakuru nka New york times na BBC bibitangaza. Nibura kugira ngo umuntu abashe guhabwa ubushobozi bwo kwinjirira telefone zigera ku icumi aba asabwa kwishyura amafaranga agera kuri miliyoni y’amadorali ya Amerika ariyo angana na miliyari y'amafaranga y’u Rwanda bivuze ko mu gihe umuntu runaka yaba ashaka kuneka umuntu umwe yaba asabwa kuba afite miliyoni zisaga gato Rwf100.

Ibitero bikomeye bya Pegasus

Mu bitero bikunzwe kugabwa ku bantu binyuze kuri iyi application, ikigo cya Israel NSO group cyatangaje ko cyo nta ruhare kibigiramo kuko cyo iyi application kiyigurisha na za leta gusa zikibwira ko zigamije kugabanya ibitero by’ubwiyahuzi ndetse n’ubwihebe.

Kuri uyu munsi ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko amatelefone agera kuri 50,000 yose yinjiriwe. Muri aya matelefone benshi mu binjiriwe harimo abanyamakuru, abanyapolitike, abacuruzi ndetse n’abanyamadini.

Mu 50,000 bya telephone zinjiriwe ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko inyinshi ziganje mu bihugu nka; Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, Saudi Arabia na the United Arab Emirates nk'uko ikinyamakuru France24 kibitangaza ndetse kikaba cyaragendeye ku bushakashatsi cyakoze kinisunga ibinyamakuru byiganjemo ibyo muri Amerika.

Mu mwaka wa 2020 na 2019 byavugwaga ko abantu benshi mu binjirirwa binyura kuri whatsApp byatewe no guhamagarwa na nimero y'impimbano kabone n'iyo yaba ititabwe gusa ubu igihari ni uko bidasaba ko hari ikintu na kimwe uwinjiriwe amenya cyangwa abwirwa ahubwo uwinjirira niwe umenya amakuru y'ibyo ashaka kumenya.

           

Mu mwaka wa 2019 ikigo cya FACEBOOK,INC kirebera inyungu za WhatsApp cyatangaje ko abagera ku 1400 ari bo bari bamaze kwinjirirwa binyuze muri ubu buryo bwo guhamagarwa. Ikigo cya Facebook gifite mu nshingano whatsApp iki gihe cyatangaje ko kigiye kujya imbizi na NSO group bitewe no kubinjirira n'ubwo iki kigo cyabiteraga utwatsi kivuga ko bakagombye kwegera ama leta kuko ariyo bakiriya bacyo nk'uko ikinyamakuru openaccessgovernment.org kibivuga.

Ikigo cyo muri Canada kitwa “Citizen Lab” ni kimwe mu bikunze kugabanya ibi bitero byinshi by’ikoranabuhanga ndetse hari n'amwe mu makuru kigenda gitanga nyuma yo gutangira gukorana n'ikigo cya WhatsApp gikorera mu kwaha kwa Facebook.

- Kuwa 30 Ukwakira 2019, ni bwo byagaragaye ko ibihumbi by’abantu mu gihugu cy’u Buhinde bagabweho igitero binyuze kuri WhatsApp bikavugwa ko ari leta y’u Buhinde yabikoze, gusa iyi mvugo leta y’u Buhinde yayamaganiye kure ihamya ko ntaho ihuriye n'ibitero byo kuneka abaturage. Gusa uwitwa Bela Bhatia umwe mu bagabweho igitero yatangarije NDTV ko abamugabyeho iki gitero bamubwiye ko ari leta ye yabatumye. Havugwaga ko hanetswe abanyamakuru ndetse n'abandi bantu bakora ibikorwa bisanzwe, n'imiryango y'ingenga.

- Muri 2017 abanyamakuru ndetse n’umunyamategeko bo muri Morocco “Maati Monib na Abdessadak El Bouchattaoui” bagabweho igitero cyaje guhoshwa n’umuryango uharananira uburenganzira bwa muntu” Amnesty International”.

WhatsApp yatangaje ko abagera kuri 1400 bagabweho ibitero na application ya Pegasus muri miliyaridi 1.7 y’abakoresha uru rubuga nkoranyambaga baturutse mu bihugu 20. 

-Kuwa 10, 11 Kanama 2019, ikigo cya Apple cyatangaje ko umugabo wo United Arab Emirates (UAE) witwa Ahmed Mansoor yatatswe na Pegasus gusa iki gitero cyaburijwemo bikozwe n’ikigo cya Citizen Lab binyuze mu kuba uyu mugabo yarabonye ubutumwa bari bamuhaye agahita abwoherereza iki kigo bikaza kurangira iki kigo cyemeje ko yari agiye kwatakwa na Pegasus.

-Kuwa 20 Nyakanga ni bwo ibinyamakuru birimo France24 na Le monde byatangaje ko umukuru w’igihugu cy’u Bufaransa bwana Emmanuel Macron yinjiriwe ndetse ko bishoka ko ashobora kuba amaze igihe agenzurwa. Ntabwo ari ibi bitero byonyine hari n’ibindi byinshi.

Byaba bishoboka kwirinda Pegasus? Niba bishoboka se wabikora gute? 

Kwirinda Pegasus birasa n’ibigoye ndetse cyane kuko mu kuza kwayo ntabwo ijya ku muntu uwo ari we wese, ijya ku muntu ari uko bayimuterereje.

Ibi uko bikorwa ni uko habaho guhimba nimero ya telefone itabaho igahamagara, ntabwo bisaba ko witaba ahubwo ikiba kigenderewe ni uko baguhamagaza ya nimero mpimbano kuri whatsApp.

Ibi iyo birangiye aha telefone baguhamagayeho iba yamaze kwatakwa ibintu byose: camera, mikoro, ndetse n’imibare y’ibanga yose iyirimo biba bifite umuntu ubicunga umunota ku wundi bityo amakuru yawe yose akaba ari mu maboko y’uwagambiriye iki gikorwa. Gusa ibi byari ibya mbere kuko ubu biravugwa ko iyi Application ishobora kuba isigaye yinjirira umuntu nta kintu na kimwe kibaye.

Debayan Gupta umwarimu muri kaminuza ya mbere mu ikoranabuhanga Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) wigisha mu ishami rya Electrical engineering and computer science avugako iyi application ya Pegasus ifite ubudahangarwa buhanitse n'ubwo benshi bavuga ko ikoreshwa mu kwinjirira telefone gusa ngo ifite ubukana bwinshi. Avuga ko akenshi hafi ya za leta nyinshi ziba zifite umuntu wo gukurikirana ibijyane n'ibitero nk'ibi.

Uyu mugabo avugako kugira ngo umuntu uhamagawe y’injirirwe, binyura mu byitwa “Metadata” kuko baraguhamagara noneho ikigo cya WhatsApp kikohoreza ubutumwa kuri wa wundi uhamagawe agahita abibona noneho iyi nimero iba yakozwe hagamijwe kwinjirira nyiri ya telefone bahamagaye, iba ifite code zihita zijya muri telefone ye bityo akaba aratatswe.

Mu bijyanye no kwirinda kwatakwa n'iyi application ibigo bifite mu nshingano gutanga icyo twakwita ubususire bw'ama telefone ni ukuvuga haba ku bakoresha Android ya google ndetse n’abakoresha iOS ya apple, icyo ibi bigo bihuriraho ni uko bisaba abakiriya babyo guhora batyaza imiyoboro ya telefone zabo (updating operating systems) ku buryo buhoraho.

Ibi bigo iyi ngingo biyihuriraho n’ikigo cya Facebook kigenga WhatsApp aho bavuga ko umukiriya yakagombye kujya amanura (download) application igezweho (updated app) mu rwego rwo kwirinda ibi bitero.    

Icyo imiryango mpuzamahanga ivuga kuri Pegasus 

Mu kwezi gushize k'Ukwakira ni bwo ikigo cya WhatsApp cyatangaje ku mugaragaro ko kiyamye ikigo cya NSO group ku bwa Pegasus ikomeje kubateza urubwa binyuze mu kwinjirira abantu bakoresha uru rubuga nkoranyambaga, ndetse benshi mu bakoresha uru rubuga bari kwijujuta bikomeye.

Ntabwo ari iki kigo cyahagurukiye ibi kuko n'umuryango mpuzamahanga uharanira uburengaznira bwa muntu (Amnesty International) nyuma yo guhagarika ibitero byari byagabwe ku banya Cameron babiri harimo umunyamakuru ndetse n’umunyamategeko nk'uko twabibonye haruguru hakiyongeraho ibi biri kuba muri iyi minsi, uyu muryango wahise wiyama iki kigo ku bwo gukwirakwiza iyi application n'ubwo bisa nk'aho bigoye.

Gusa ubu Isi yose iri kwamagana iyi application ndetse n'iki kigo kiyigurisha gusa, birasa n'agatereranzamba kuko nk'uko bivugwa n’iki kigo cya NSO group benshi mu bakuru b'ibihugu basa n’abarwanya iyi application biba ari ukwiyerurutsa kuko ibafasha kumenya amakuru y’imitwe ibarwanya ndetse n’ibyihebe biba byarabazonze.

Ubuyobozi bwa NSO group inshuro nyinshi iyo bwiregura buvuga ko abakiriya babo ari imiryango ikomeye ku Isi ndetse na za Leta bityo ko batabona impamvu yo kwamaganwa.

Ni bande bakunze kwibasirwa na Pegasus?Ikinyamakuru “openaccessgovernment.org” ku busesenguzi cyakoze kifashishije inzobere zitandukanye mu ikoranabuhanga kivugako ko iyi applicarion ya Pegasus ikoreshwa na za leta n’imiryango ikomeye mu kuneka amakuru akenshi ku bo baba batavuga rumwe ndetse n’ibyihebe.

Aha akenshi birumvikana ko ikiba kigamijwe ari ukurinda umutekano wa za leta zabo gusa ku rundi ruhande havugwa ko iyi application ikunze kwibasira abanyametegeko ndetse n’abanyamakuru hagamijwe kumenya impumeko iba ibarimo.

Muri iyi minsi Isi iyobowe n’ubwenge bw’ubukorano “Artificial Intelligence” icyo bisobanuye ubu ibihugu byinshi biri kurwana umuhenerezo kugira ngo muri iki gisata birusheho kuba aba mbere, gusa rubanda rugufi bakiri hasi ku bijyanye na Artificial intelligence barakandamizwa umunsi ku wundi.  

Src: the wire.in, nytimes.com, BBC, Firstpost.com, qz.com, ft.com...  






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