RFL
Kigali

Amateka atagarukwaho y'ubucakara bwakorewe abirabura mu bihugu by'abarabu mu gihe cy'imyaka 1400

Yanditswe na: Christian Mukama
Taliki:13/08/2020 9:00
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Mu mateka y’uyu mubumbe dutuye, hari ibikorwa by’indenga kamere bitandukanye byagiye byibasira inyokomuntu. Bimwe mu byagiye byibasira iyi nyoko ahanini bidahwema kugarukwaho mu mateka harimo intambara ndetse n’ibindi bikorwa nk’ubucakara. Reka twitse ku bucakara bwakorewe abirabura n'abarabu bwirengagizwa kenshi mu mateka.



Kuva Timbuktu (Mali), ukanyura muri Senegal y’ubu, ukagana Murzuq muri Libya y’ubu, urugendo rugakomereza Alexandria cyangwa Aswan mu Misiri mbere yo kwambuka amazi magari y’inyanja itukura; uru ni urugendo abirabura b’abacakara banyuzwagamo mu butayu bwa Sahara. Iyi nzira inyura muri uyu muhora wiswe “Tanssharienne”. 

Uku kunyuzwa mu nzira y’ubutayu bwa Sahara mbere yo kwambutswa inyanja itukura, aba birabura ntibabaga bajyanywe mu bucakara mu mirima y’ibiceke muri Amerika y’amajyepfo ─ dore ko n’ibyerekezo bidahuye─ ahubwo babaga bajyanywe mu bucara mu bihugu by’abarabu.

Ubu bucakara bwamaze imyaka isaga 1400, dore ko bwatangiye ahagana mu kinyejana cya 7 bukarangira mu cya 20. Nubwo bwose ubu bucakara butahitanye abirabura benshi bo ku mugabane w’Afurika kurusha ubwabajyanaga muri Amerika, nyamara na bwo ntibwabuze gutwara mu buretwa abari hagati ya miliyoni 15 na 17 nk'uko bitangazwa n’agashami k’ Umuryango w’ Abibumbye (UNESCO).

Ubu bucakara na bwo nk’ubundi bwose bwabayeho mu isi bwahitanye umubare utari muto dore ko bivugwa yuko abagera kuri miriyoni 7 bazize ubu bucakara. Ku rundi ruhande, hari imibare ishimangira ko ubu bucakara na bwo koko bwahitanye abatari bake dore ko ngo kugirango hafatwe umucakara umwe byasabaga kwica abantu 2 cyangwa 3 bo mu muryango cyangwa urusisiro rwe.

Ikindi kintu cyazonze aba birabura bajyanwaga mu bucakara, abahungu benshi bahasigaga ubuzima kubera igikorwa cyabakorerwaga cyo gukenywa (gukebwa). Hagati ya 70-80% y'abagenywaga akenshi bahasigaga ubuzima kubera kutitabwaho ku buryo buhagije.

Impamvu nyamukuru yateye ubu bucakara nuko ababigaruriraga bari bakeneye amaboko mu bikorwa by’ubukungu amatware yabo yari yaragezeho. Indi ngingo, ni uko abirabura byari byoroshye kubagira abacakara kubera ko abarabu babarushaga igisirikare n’intwaro bityo kwirinda bikabagora. Nyamara ntitwakwirengagiza ko ibi bitari gushoboka iyo hagati ku mugabane w’Afurika cyangwa mu matware hatabamo ubucuruzi bw’abirabura bukozwe n’abandi birabura nkuko bigarukwaho n’umunyamateka Slah Trabelsi.

Umwe mu banditsi n’abahanga mu mateka y’abarabu, Ibn Khaldoun yagaragaje ko abirabura ariyo nyoko yonyine yemera kugira abacakara kubera ubukererwe mu iterambere byabateraga kwiberaho nk’inyamaswa. Ibn Khaldoun yabayeho ahagana mu mwaka wa 1332-1406.

Twasoreza ku ngingo ijana urujijo kimwe n’ihangana mu bashakashatsi n’abanyaporitiki, ese ko abagera kuri 5% za miliyoni 12 z’abacakara bashoboye kugera muri Amerika bibarutse miliyoni 70 z’abirabura tubona none kuva muri Canada, Amerika, Mexico kimwe no mubirwa bya Pacifique; abajyanywe mu Barabu bo ko batagaragara? Aya mateka yaba yarahishwe ku bushake ku bw'inyungu za politiki n’idini rya Islam?






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