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Menya byinshi ku ntambara yiswe iy’inkweto yabaye hagati y’abavandimwe 2 bashinze Adidas na Puma

Yanditswe na: Soter Dusabimana
Taliki:3/08/2020 10:22
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Ku bantu bakunda ibijyanye na siporo by’umwihariko umupira w’amaguru ndetse n’indi myitozo ngororamubiri nko gusiganwa ku maguru, ijambo Puma ndetse na Adidas bayumva byihuse, bitewe n’ubwoko bw’inkweto buri muntu akunda kwambara.



Izi nganda zombi zamamaye kubera gukora imyenda n’inkweto bikomera kandi biramba byifashishwa by’umwihariko mu myitozo ngorora mubiri, zashinzwe n’abasore babiri bavukanaga aribo: Rudolf Dassler wavutse mu 1898 akaba yari azwi ku kabyiniriro ka Rudi ndetse na Adolf Dassler wavutse mu 1900 akaba we yari azwi nka Adi. Aba bavukiye mu muryango ukennye mu gace kitwa Herzogenaurach ho mu gihugu cy’u Budage.

Aba bombi se ubabyara yitwaga Christoph Dassler akaba yari nyakabyizi mu ruganda rw’inkweto, ariko kugira ngo umuryango ubashe kubaho akabivangaga no kwikorera inkweto ziciriritse iwe mu rugo akazigurisha mu baturanyi kuko amafaranga y’uruganda yatindaga cyane. Nyina w’aba basore bombi we akaba yarakoraga akazi ko kumesera abantu muri rimwe mu mamesero rusange aho mu Budage.   

Mu mwaka wa 1919, aba bavandimwe bashinzwe uruganda rw’inkweto barwita Gebruder Dassler cyangwa se Geda mu mpine. Hatitawe ku bibazo bya politike Ubudage bwarimo muri biriya bihe bya 1930 na 1940, uru ruganda rwa Geda rwageze ku ntego zarwo rurunguka ku kigero cyo hejuru cyane.

Uru ruganda kandi rwaje kunguka abandi bakiriya benshi cyane ku isi yose binyuze mu mikino Olympic yo mu 1936, ubwo umwirabura ufite ubwenegihugu bwa Amerika Jesse Owens yatsindiraga imidari ine ya zahabu, akabikora yambaye inkweto z’uruganda Geda. Ibi byatumye hirya no hino ku isi batangira gutumiza inkweto zakozwe n’uru ruganda maze Adolf na Rudolf Dessler baba bamwe mu bakire bakiri bato aho mu budage muri ibyo bihe.

Jesse Owens

Umuhanga mu gusiganwa ku maguru Jesse owens yamenyekanishije uruganda Geda ku ruhando mpuzamahanga

Ibikorwa by’uruganda Geda byaje gukomwa mu nkokora ndetse birasubikwa bitewe n’intambara ya 2 y’isi, maze amazu rwakoreragamo ahindurwa ubucuriro bw’intwaro. Muri iki gihe cy’intambara kandi umwe muri aba bavandimwe ariwe Rudolf yarafashwe ashyirwa mu gisirikare cya Adolf Hitler ku gahato, ni uko ibyo gucura inkweto biba birahagaze kugeza ubwo intambara yarangiraga Rudolf akagaruka, maze ibikorwa by’uruganda bigasubukurwa. Ariko iki gihe Rudolf afunze murumuna we Adolf yakoranaga ubucuruzi n’abanyamerika ibintu bitamushimishije afunguwe.

Mu mwaka wa 1948, ni ukuvuga nyuma y’imyaka 30 y’ubufatanye hagati y’abavandimwe, Adolf na Rudolf bitunguranye bafunze uruganda bari bahuriye ho ari rwo Geda maze baratandukana.  Impamvu ebyiri zashyizwe mu majwi mu kuba ari zo zateye ugutandukana kw’aba bombi; ni amakimbirane y’urudaca yahoraga hagati y’abagore babo ngo yaba yaranateye Adi kugambanira mukuru we Rudolf akajyanwa mu gisirikare cy’ubudage mu gihe cy’intambara ya 2 y’isi bikaza kumuviramo no gufungwa igihe gito n’umwanzi.

dassler brothers

Adolf Dassler (i bumoso) na Rudolf Dassler (i buryo) 

Mu mwaka wa 1948 Rudolf yashinze uruganda rwe ku giti cye arwita Ruda abikuye ku mpine y’izina rye Rudolf Dassler, ariko nyuma y’igihe gito yaje kumva ari zina ritavugitse neza, ni uko mu kugira ngo arihuze n’ibijyanye na siporo ndetse no kugira ngo yigarurire abakiriya benshi, Ruda yahise ayihindura Puma. Puma yabikuye ku izina ry’injangwe y’agasozi y’ibara ry’umukara isimbuka mu buryo buhambaye, ikagira n’umuvuduko uhambaye mu kwiruka ikaba rero ikunze kuboneka mu mashyamba yo muri Amerika y’Epfo.

Mu 1949, Adolf nawe yashinze uruganda akuye ku mpine y’amazina ye Adolf Dassler ni uko arwita Adidas. Nyuma y’ibi, ubukungu bwa rwa ruganda bari barashinze hamwe arirwo Geda ndetse n’abakozi barwo, byombi byagabanywe n’abo bavandimwe babiri. Bibiri bya gatatu by’abakozi b’uruganda bari bafatanyije bisangiye Adolf kubera ukuntu ari we benshi bikundiraga kuko yakundaga akazi kandi agahorana udushya mu gokora inkweto kurusha mukuru we Rudolf. Rudolf we yakundaga gucuruza cyane kurusha gukora ibishya isoko rikeneye. Kimwe cya gatatu cy’abakozi bari basigaye basanze Rudolf na Puma ye ni uko bashyira uruganda ku muhanda wahitwa Wurzuburger.

Mu myaka mirongo itatu yakurikiye ho izi nganda zombi zateye imbere cyane ari nako zihangana mu buryo bwagaragariraga buri wese, kuko hari nkaho Adidas yasinyanye amasezerano n’umukinnyi w’iteramakofe Muhammad Ali ndetse n’uwitwa Joe Frazier ngo bajye bayamamariza, ni uko mu minsi mike Puma nayo ihita igirana amasezerano n’ikipe y’igihugu y’umupira w’amaguru muri Brazil.

Nyuma y’ibi ariko. Adidas yakomeje gukora inkweto nyinshi cyane kandi zagenewe imikino yose ndetse abantu bakazikunda kubera ugukomera kwazo. Puma nayo yari iyobowe na Rudolf yo yibandaga mu kwamamaza cyane yakomeje kujya isenya ibikorwa bya Adidas binyuze mu matangazo banyuzaga hirya no hino yo kwangisha rubanda ibikoresho bya Adidas.

Umujyi witwa Herzogenaurach wacitsemo ibice kubera Adidas na Puma

Kubera amakimbirane yari hagati yizi nganda zombi n'abakozi bazo ntago bacanaga uwaka, dore ko batahahiraga mu masoko amwe, utubari, mu ma saloon yo kwiyogoshesha, ndetse no mu nzira gusuhuza umuntu wabanzaga kureba ubwoko bw'inkweto yambaye. Kubera rero uyu muco w’ukuntu abantu birirwaga bunamye ngo barebe ubwoko bw’inkweto z’abo bahuraga, uyu mugi wa Herzogenaurach waje guhimbwa izina ry’umujyi w’amajosi agonze(the town of bent necks).

Amateka y’ihangana rya Adidas na Puma mu gikombe cy’isi

Mu 1954 Ubudage bw’uburengerazuba bwemererwa kwitabira igikombe cy’isi. Iki gihe rero cyari kibaye umwanya mwiza kuri ziriya nganda zombi kugira ngo zongere zigarurire isoko ry’isi. Adidas niyo yahawe isoko ryo kwambika ikipe y'igihugu y'u budage bw'uburengerazuba. Ubudage bwaje gutwara icyi gikombe bityo bituma Adidas itera imbere cyane.

Mu gikombe cy'isi 1970, Puma nayo yaje kugirana amasezerano na Pele aho bari bamvikanye ko aza gufatwa amashusho afunga inkweto hagati mu mukino, Pele yaje kubikora maze Puma izina ryayo rirazamuka cyane, muri uyu mukino ni nawo Brazil yatwayemo igikombe. 

Pele

Kubera izi ntambara zakomeje kuba hagati y'izi nganda ebyiri mu guhanganira amasoko atandukanye, nibwo byaje kwitwa intambara y'inkweto cyangwa War of Shoes.

Aba bavandumwe batabarutse batariyunga kuko umuryango wabo ntako utagize ngo ubunge, inshuti zabo za hafi nazo zaragerageje biranga. Rudolf wari mukuru akaba yarashinze uruganda rwa Puma yatabarutse mu 1974 akurikirwa na murumuna we Adolf mu 1978. Aba bavandimwe bombi bashyinguye mu irimbi riri mu mujyi wa Hergozenaurach bavukiyemo, imva zabo rero zashyizwe ku mpera zitandukanye.

Ku wa 21 Nzeri mu 2009 ni umunsi utazibagirana mu mateka y’izi nganda zombi, kuko ni bwo hateguwe umukino wa gicuti hagati ya Puma na Adidas abakinnyi basangirira hamwe baranasuhuzanya kandi bitari byarigeze kubaho, kuva ubwo umwuka ugenda uba mwiza gahoro gahoro.

Src: Sneakers Wars by Barbara Smit
 






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