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Itegurwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi: Ibyaranze amatariki ya 22-29 Gashyantare 1991-1994

Yanditswe na: Mupende Gedeon Ndayishimiye
Taliki:24/02/2020 13:14
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Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside ikomeje bimwe mu bikorwa byaranze umugambi w’itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Ibikorwa bikurikira ni ibyabaye ku matariki ya 22-29 Gashyantare, 1991-1994.



1.      Iyemezwa ryo gushinga Ishyaka ry’abahezanguni ryiswe CDR

Ishyaka ryiyise Coalition pour la défense de la République (CDR) ryagize uruhare runini cyane mu bukangurambaga bwa Jenoside, haba mu kuyitegura no gushishikariza Abahutu gushyira hamwe bakica Abatutsi. Igitekerezo cyo gushinga CDR cyatangiriye mu nama zitandukanye zabereye mu yari Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda, Ishami rya Nyakinama, zateranye ku wa 22 Ukuboza 1991, ku wa 5 Mutarama 1992 no ku wa 17 Mutarama 1992. 

Izi nama zahuje Agatsiko k’intagondwa z’Abahutu b’intiti bakoraga mu buyobozi bw’inzego zitandukanye za Leta bakomokaga muri Perefegitura ya Gisenyi na Ruhengeri, bari bahujwe n’urwango ku Batutsi. Aka gatsiko kiyise Cercle des Républicains Progressistes kari kayobowe na Charles Ndereyehe Ntahontuye wakomokaga muri Komini Cyabingo muri Ruhengeri, akaba yari Umuyobozi mukuru w’umushinga wo guteza imbere ubuhinzi muri Gikongoro (PDAG = Projet de dévéloppement agricole de Gikongoro).

Ku itariki 22/02/1992, inama yo kwemeza ishingwa rya CDR yateraniye muri Hotel Village Urugwiro i Kigali ihuza abantu icumi b’intagondwa batangaza ku mugaragaro ko bashinze Ishyaka rya «Coalition pour la Défense de la République (CDR)» mu gifransa naho mu kinyarwanda baryita «Impuzamugambi Ziharanira Repubulika». Abo bantu ba mbere bashinze CDR muri iyo nama ni : Bucyana Martin, Nahimana Théoneste, Misago Rutegesha Antoine, Mugimba Jean Baptiste, Uwamariya Béatrice, Higiro Céléstin, Nzaramba Céléstin, Akimanizanye Emmanuel, Hitimama Athanase na Simbizi Stanislas. Aba bantu bazahora bibukirwa ku bugome ndengakamere Ishyaka bashinze ryakoreye u Rwanda muri Jenoside yahitanye Abatutsi barenga miliyoni hagati ya Mata na Nyakanga 1994.


2.      Marcel DEBARGE, Minisitiri w’ubutwererane w’Ubufaransa yasabye ko abatavuga rumwe na Perezida Habyarimana bihuriza hamwe mu kurwanya FPR


Tariki ya 23 Gashyantare 1993, Ubufaransa bwohereje mu Rwanda Minisitiri wabwo ushinzwe ubutwererane, Marcel DEBARGE. Mu ruzinduko rwe yahuye na Perezida HABYARIMANA ndetse n’abahagarariye amashyaka ataravugaga rumwe na Habyarimana abasaba ko bareka guhangana na Habyarimana ahubwo bakishyira hamwe bagahuza imbaraga, bagafatanya kurwanya FPR.

Ubu butumwa bwatanzwe na Minisitiri w’Umufaransa bwatumye abahezanguni b’Abahutu bari mu butegetsi bw’u Rwanda bumva ko Ubufaransa bubashyigikiye bakomeza gutegura ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside, birengagiza inzira izo ari zo zose z’amahoro zashakirwamo ibisubizo.

Kuri uwo munsi nyirizina hasabwe ko abatavuga rumwe na HABYARIMANA bihuza na we bagafatanya kurwanya FPR, ubwicanyi bwibasiye Abatutsi ndetse n’ibindi bikorwa by’urugomo byabaye mu bice byinshi by’Umujyi wa Kigali bituma abaturage bava mu ngo zabo bahungira kuri MINUAR. Nayo ubwo yahise ifungura ahantu habiri ho kubakirira, hamwe iruhande rwa Stade Amahoro, ahandi i Gikondo kuri MAGERWA.


3.      Itsinda ry’abaturage b’Abafaransa ryamaganye uruhare rwa Leta yabo mu gushyigikira abicanyi ba Leta y’u Rwanda


Kuwa 23 Gashyantare 1993, ihuriro ry’Abafaransa baba mu mahanga, bagejeje ku ishyaka rya Gisosiyalisiti ry’Ubufransa ryayoborwaga na Perezida Francois Mitterrand, inyandiko yamagana inkunga y’Ubufaransa ku butegetsi bw’abicanyi bwari mu Rwanda. Babyanditse muri aya magambo : « (…) mu Rwanda hari umuriro n’amaraso bitigeze bibaho. Imiryango mpuzamahanga yavumbuye ibyobo byinshi bijugunywamo abantu, bikaba byarabaye akamenyero k’iyo Leta. Interahamwe za Jenerali Habyarimana zongeye kwica Abatutsi, kandi ntizibiryozwa. (…) ku bw’ibyo rero, ubufasha bw’Ubufaransa mu bya gisirikare ntibushobora guhagarika ubwicanyi cyangwa kugarura amahoro mu karere. Ikibabaje kandi, biragaragara kuri ubu ko ubufasha bw’Ubufaransa butuma Habyarimana ategeka biriya bikorwa byose bibi ashyigikiwe kandi anarinzwe n’amahanga ».

Kuri iyi tariki ya 23 Gashyantare 1993, ishyaka ry’abaharanira Repubulika (Parti Républicain français), naryo ryasohoye itangazo ryamagana uruhare rw’Ubufaransa mu Rwanda : « Ishyaka ry’abaharanira Repubulika ritewe impungenge n’ubutumwa bushobora kugaragara nk’ubwa politiki bwahawe ingabo z’Abafaransa, rihangayikishijwe by’umwihariko n’uburyo Guverinoma y’Ubufaransa  yihatira kohereza umunsi ku wundi  amatsinda menshi y’abasirikare […] Ishyaka ry’abaharanira Repubulika riraburira Guverinoma y’ubufaransa ko gufasha no gushyigikira ubutegetsi butubahiriza demokarasi, bikozwe n’abasirikare b’Abafaransa bishobira kwangiza isura y’Ubufaransa muri Afurika ».

Kuwa 28 Gashyantare 1993, ubunyamabanga mpuzamahanga bw’ishyaka rya gisosiyalisiti (Parti Socialiste) bwagejeje ku biro ntaramakuru by’Abafaransa AFP, inyandiko yashyizweho umukono na Gérard Fuchs rinenga inkunga ya gisilikare Ubufransa bwateraga u Rwanda: « Ndibaza byinshi ku mwanzuro wo kohereza abandi basirikare mu Rwanda, mu gihe ibikorwa bya Habyarimana byo guhonyora uburenganzira bwa muntu  bidasiba kwiyongera. Ndizera ko Minisitiri wacu w’ubutwererane azabona i Kigali  impamvu zifatika zo koherezayo abasirikare b’Abafaransa, kuri ubu bigaragara nk’ubufasha ku butegetsi bw’igitugu buri mugihirahiro cyangwa se ubwo bigahagarikwa ».


4.      Abanyapolitiki bakomeye b’Abafaransa bitandukanyije na politiki y’Ubufaransa yo gushyigikira u Rwanda

 

Mu nyandiko yandikiwe perezida Mitterrand ku wa 23 Gashyantare 1993, abahoze ari ba Minisitiri babiri, Michel Rocard wabaye Minisitiri w’intebe na Pierre Joxe wabaye Minisitiri w’ingabo bagaragaje ku mugaragaro ko badashyigikiye politiki y’Ubufaransa mu Rwanda. Mu magambo yeruye, Minisitiri Joxe yagaragaje kwifata kwe ku bijyanye na politiki y’Ubufaransa mu Rwanda : « Ndibaza byinshi ku bijyanye n’aho duhagaze mu Rwanda ndetse n’icyo bimaze kuba abasirikare bacu 690 bakoherezwayo ; kubera ko kuri ubu abasirikare b’u Rwanda ntibakirwana. […] ku bwa Habyarimana, kohereza indi mitwe ibiri y’ingabo, nyuma y’indi myigaragamyo yamagana kumushyigikira kwacu, byatuma yumva ko kuri ubu ari we mutegetsi ushyigikiwe cyane n’Ubufaransa muri Afurika. Ntabwo rero ariyo nzira iboneye yo gutuma afata ibyemezo bikenewe. Ariko niwe bigomba kubazwa kubera ubuhezanguni bwe muri politiki ndetse n’ubushobozi bwe buke mu gutegura ingabo ze. FPR iramutse yongeye gukaza umurego, nyuma y’amasaha make nubndi abasirikare bacu bakwisanga barwana na yo. Inzira ikomeye yonyine isigaye yo kumushyiraho igitutu,ukuyemo ubufasha muburyo butaziguye,njye ndabona yaba ukutongera kubyivangamo ».

Ibi birerekana ko Abafransa bose, barimo na bamwe mu bari mu nzego z’ubuyobozi bw’icyo gihugu, atari ko bemeranyaga na Perezida Mitterrand ku nkunga yateraga Leta y’u Rwanda mu bya gisilikare, politiki, amafranga no mu rwego rwa diplomasi, bakaba bakwiye kubishimirwa.

 

5.      Ishingwa rya Hutu Power mu mashyaka ya MRND, MDR, PSD na PL

 

Ku wa 25 Gashyantare 1994, habaye inama ikomeye y’abayobozi b’Interahamwe iyobowe na perezida wazo ku rwego rw’igihugu, KAJUGA Robert ; hafatiwemo umwanzuro wo gukebura Interahamwe zose ko zigomba kwitondera Abatutsi, cyane cyane abo mu Mujyi wa Kigali kuko bo lisiti zabo zari zihari no kwitegura gutangira ibikorwa  igihe icyo ari cyo cyose bakoresheje intwaro zikomeye cyangwa ibindi bikoresho. Undi mwanzuro wari uwo gukorana n’impuzamugambi za CDR n’abandi banyamuryango ba Hutu power bo mu mashyaka akomeye y’icyo gihe nka MDR,PSD na PL. Uku guhuza ingufu byaje byiyongera  ku ngufu z’amashyaka yari mu kwaha kwa MRND ari yo PECO (ishyaka ryita kubidukikije), PDI (Ishyaka rya Kiyisilamu riharanira demokarasi), PADER (ishyaka nyarwanda riharanira demokarasi), RTD (Ihuriro ry’abakozi baharanira demokarasi),MFBP (Muvoma y’abagore na rubanda rugufi),na PPJR (ishyaka riharanira iterambere ry’urubyiruko rw’u Rwanda).

Kuri iyi tariki, Ishyirahamwe ry’Abakorerabushake b’Amahoro, (AVP), umuryango nyarwanda uharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu ryasohoye itangazo ryamagana ko hari umugambi w’ubwicanyi, kubiba urwango kwakorwaga na radiyo RTLM. Ryanakoze urtonde rw’abahitanywe n’ibikorwa by’urugomo byakozwe n’ubutegetsi bwariho icyo gihe, cyane cyane mu Mujyi wa Kigali rinahamagarira MINUAR guhagarika ubwo bwicanyi bwakorwaga na Leta.

Tariki ya 27/2/1994, kuri hoteli Rebero L’Horizon habereye inama yahuje abayobozi b’Interahamwe, yitabirwa na Michel Bagaragaza, Joseph Nzirorera, Augustin Ngirabatware, Claver Mvuyekure, Pasteur Musabe, Seraphin Rwabukumba na Kajuga Robert. Iyo nama yemeje ko bagiye gushaka amafaranga yo gushyigikira Umutwe ugomba gutsemba Abatutsi.

   

6.      Gukomeza kugura intwaro binyuranyije n’icyemezo cya ONU

 

Kuwa 27 Gashyantare 1994, inyandiko yo mu biro by’ubutasi bw’ububiligi yagaragazaga uruhererekane rw’intwaro zigenewe ingabo z’u Rwanda n’Interahamwe, hirengagijwe ikomanyirizwa ry’intwaro u Rwanda rwari rwarashyiriweho n’akanama ka Loni gashinzwe amahoro ku isi. Amakuru agaragaza ko izo ntwaro u rwanda rwari rwaraziguze na UNITA (Inyeshyamba zo muri Angola), zigacishwa mu kigo cya gisirikare cya Kamina muri Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo (RDC), icyo gihe yitwaga Zaîre, nyuma zikazanwa ku kibuga cy’indege cya Goma nyuma zigashyikirizwa ingabo z’u Rwanda ziciye kumupaka wa Gisenyi. Mub’ukuri muburyo butandukanye bunyuranyije n’amategeko, intwaro zakoreshejwe mu gukora Jenoside, zakomeje guhabwa abicanyi nubwo MINUAR yari ihari kandi n’izo nzira zacishwagamo intwaro rwihishwa zizwi n’ibihugu bikomeye by’Uburayi na Amerika.

Kuri uyu munsi kandi, Jenerali DALLAIRE yongeye gusaba ububasha bwo gufatira intwaro agaragaza impungenge zikomeye z’intambara y’abaturage. LONI yamwibukije ko inshingano ze zagarukiraga gusa ku kugenzura ishyirwaho ry’inzego z’inzibacyuho. Hagati ya tariki 25-28 Gashyantare 1994, ibikorwa byeruye by’urugomo byibasiye Abatutsi byatumye bahungira mu nsengero no ku bakozi ba MINUAR. Ni muri urwo rwego MINUAR yafunguye ahantu 2 ho kubakira, iruhande rwa Sitade AMAHORO, no mu bubiko bwa MAGERWA i Gikondo.

 

7.      Igurwa rya toni 581 z’imihoro yakoreshejwe muri Jenoside

 

Muri Gashyantare 1994, umukozi wa sosiyete CHILLINGTON yemeje ko isosiyete yabo yari imaze kugurisha u Rwanda mu mezi make, imihoro myinshi iruta kure ubwinshi iyo bari baratumije mu mwaka wose wa 1993. Impapuro zisaba impushya zo kuzana ibintu mgihugu zasuzumwe na Human Rights Watch hagati ya Mutarama 1993 na Werurwe 1994, zigaragaza ko toni 581 z’imihoro zinjijwe mu Rwanda. Iyo mihoro yatumijwe yose hamwe kugiciro cya miliyoni 95 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda, yatanzwe n’umunyemali KABUGA Félicien.

Ikinyamakuru cyo mu Bwongereza, The Sunday Times, cyo kuwa 24 Ugushyingo 1996, cyagaragaje ko hagati ya Kanama n’Ukuboza 1993, Sosiyete CHILLINGTON yagurishije imihoro 1600 ku bakozi babiri ba RWANDEX, Eugène Mbarushimana na François BURASA. Mbarushimana wari umukozi wa RWANDEX yari umukwe wa KABUGA ndetse ari n’umunyamabanga mukuru w’Interahamwe ku rwego rw’igihugu. Naho Burasa we yari yarasezerewe mugisirikare ari n’umunyamuryango w’ishyaka ry’abahezanguni b’Abahutu, CDR, akaba na mwenenyina wa Jean-Bosco BARAYAGWIZA, umwe mubayobozi bakuru b’iryo shyaka. Kugura n gukwirakwiza imihoro kubaturage b’abasivili bari barahawe imyitozo ya gisirikare byari biri muri gahunda yo kwirwanaho kwa gisivili (auto-defense civile) yagaragaye muri ajenda ya Bagosora. Hari handitswe ko bamwe mu banyamuryango b’iyi gahunda bagombaga kubona imbunda abandi bakabona intwaro zoroheje zirimo n’imihoro.

Dr Bizimana Jean Damascene Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y'Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside, avuga ko ibi bikorwa byavuzwe haruguru biragaragaza ko Leta ya Habyarimana yari yarateguye umugambi wa Jenoside, igatoza abicanyi bazawushyira mu bikorwa ikanabashakira ibikoresho. Ibi kandi byari bizwi n’amahanga ariko ntihagira igikorwa ngo uyu mugambi mubisha uburizwemo.





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