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Ibintu 6 biranga ‘Civilization’ ndetse n’ibishobora kuyibangamira

Yanditswe na: Muhawenimana Faridi
Taliki:3/12/2019 16:08
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Uko ubona imijyi cyangwa se ibihugu ubu, si ko byahoze nko mu myaka 3000 mbere y'ivuka rya Kristo. Impamvu ni uko, hagiye habaho iterambere ry'abantu ndetse n'uduce babagamo ari byo bizwi mu rurimo rw'icyongereza nka "Civilization". Iyi nkuru, iragaragaza ibintu bitandatu by'ingenzi biranga ‘Civilization’ ndetse n'ibishobora kuyangiza.



Ibijyane n'iterambere rya sosiyete byatangiye kugaragara mu myaka ya 4000 na 3000 mbere y'ivuka rya Kristo. Dushingiye ku nyandiko ya National Geographic, igaragaza ko agace ka mbere kagaragayemo iterambere (civilization), ari Mesopotamia (ubu ni: Iraq), hanyuma haza na Egypt, n’ibindi.

Iyi nyandiko ikomeza yerekana ko mu bibaya bya Indus naho haje kugaragara iterambere rya sosiyete yaho ahagana mu myaka ya 2500 mbere ya Kristo, ndetse no mu Bushinwa mu 1500 mbere ya Kristo. Ahandi ni muri Amerika yo hagati (ubu ni: Mexico), ahagana mu mwaka wa 1200 mbere ya Yesu. Ibi, bigenda bigaragazwa n'amatongo aba yarasizwe, inyandiko zakoreshejwe, cyangwa se ibindi bisigisigi by'ibyo bakoreshaga muri icyo gihe.

Ese ubundi sosiyete irimo iterambere irangwa n'iki? (Characteristics of Civilization)

Iterambere rya sosiyete riba rifite ibi by'ingenzi, n'ubwo hari impuguke zigaragaza ko atari ngombwa ko buri sosiyete iba yujuje ibi byose.

1. Imijyi/uduce duteye imbere: Akenshi usanga abantu bakunze kwiturira mu mijyi cyangwa se mu duce duteye imbere. No muri ibyo bihe rero, wasanga abantu batura mu bibaya, hagati y' imisozi, ngo babashe kubona ahantu hagari kandi hahagije ho gukorera ubuhinzi, ndetse hakanaturwa.

Aha, wasangaga hatuwe n' abahinzi, abarobyi, n'abandi bakora ubucuruzi ku batuye utu duce. Gusa n'ubwo wasangaga hari n'abandi bari inyuma yatwo, nabo babarwaga muri iryo terambere. Ahanini, ubucuruzi bwakorwaga bw'ibihingwa bejeje, ndetse n'ibindi bikoresho babaga bihimbiye, ni byo byongereraga agace kuba kagira iterambere. Ni ibisanzwe, kuko n'ubu igihugu gikomeye mu bucuruzi usanga kiyoboye ku isi.

2.Imyubakire yihariye, ndetse n'ubugeni: Ahanini usanga abantu dukunze kubaka amazu n'ibindi bikorwa remezo. Ibi, ni ukugira ngo tugaragaze ko twigeze kubaho. Nko muri Zimbabwe, inyubako zikomeye zubatswe mu myaka ya 1100 na 1450, zirakifashishwa nk'ikimenyetso cy' ubuhangange mu bijyanye na politiki. Izindi ngero ni nk'inzu zizwi nka Pyramid zubatswe muri Egypt. Imyubakire uba usanga yihariye, ariko ifite n'icyo ivuze kuri ako gace, nayo igira uruhare mu iterambere ry' iyo sosiyete.

Byongeye kandi, wasangaga izi nyubako ziganjemo nk'ibishushanyo, ibimenyetso, ibibumbano, ndetse n' ibindi bitandukanye byarangaga ubugeni. Nko muri Zimbabwe twavuze, hari ibibumbano byabaga byarakozwe mu mabuye bizwi nka "Zimbabwe Birds", ubu biracyafite agaciro kuko bigaragara ku mafaranga, ku ibendera, imyenda y' ingabo, n' ahandi.

3. Uburyo rusange bw' itumanaho: Itumanaho rishobora kuba hakoreshejwe ururimi mu magambo avugwa, inyandiko, inyuguti, imibare, ibimenyetso, ibitekerezo n' ibindi bitandukanye.

Byihariye ku rurimi, rufasha sosiyete kuba yasakaza amakuru ndetse n' ibijyanye n' iterambere ririmo kuba. Igikomeye, Ni uko bibafasha kuba basigasira umuco wabo, ndetse ukaba wanatandukanya uwanyu n' uwahandi. Nk' ururimi rw' Icyarabu, rwakomeje gufasha abarabu mu byo bakoraga, ari imibare yaturutse mu cyarabu yo yateje imbere ibya siyansi, ibijyanye n' imibare, ndetse na tekinoroji. Iki, kikaba n' ikintu sosiyete zose zirimo gutera imbere zihuriraho.

4. Ubutegetsi/ ubuyobozi: Iryo terambere tuvuga, rishingira ahanini ku miyoborere ndetse n' izindi gahunda z' ubutegetsi. Uko imibare y' abantu igendaga yiyongera, n' ibyo bakora bikura, ni ko hakenerwa gusigasira umutekano w' agace kabo. Ni byo bituma haremwa uburyo bw' imiyoborere/ubutegetsi, buzafasha gushyira abantu n' ibintu byabo ku murongo, ndetse no kuyobora ingabo ngo zirinde ako gace. 

Mu bihe nk' ibi, abayobozi babaga ari abami n' abamikazi babaga bayoboye ubwami. Nk' Abanyeroma, bakoresheje uburyo bwo gushyiraho icyo mu Rwanda twita inzego z' ibanze, ku uburyo wasangaga abaturage babazi, ndetse bakanabizera. Ubuyobozi/ubutegetsi ni indi ngingo ishimangira ko agace runaka karimo kazamuka mu iterambere (civilization).

5. Imirimo/imikorere (uburyo bwo gusangira no kugabana akazi): N' ubwo uduce twinshi twabaga twiganjemo ubuhinzi, wasangaga hari n' indi mirimo ikorwa. Byagendaga bite? Uko abantu bagendaga batera imbere, niko na sosiyete yagendaga ibacamo ibice;abakire, abari mu cyiciro cyo hagati bakaba nk' abahinzi, abari hasi y' abandi bose bakaba abacakara. Ubwo iyo abakire bakeneraga ibintu bihenze, hagombaga kuba hariho nk' abanyabugeni bahanga ibintu bizagurishwa abakire. Imirimo ikaba irahanzwe.

Usanga rero abantu bakora imirimo itandukanye bazobereyemo. Urugero, nk' umujwi wa Timbuktu (ubu ni: Mali), bari bakomeye mu bucuruzi mu bice bitandukanye by' Afurika. Ahanini bagurishaga: zahabu, amahembe y'inzovu, abacakara, ndetse n' ibindi. Ubwo abo bagurisha nabo, bakabaha ibindi batabaga bafite muri icyo gihe. Ubu nabwo, bwari ubundi buryo bwongereraga agace runaka kuba katera imbere.

6. Ibyiciro by' ubudehe: cyangwa ibyitwa mu rurimi rw' icyongereza "social class". Iki, ni ikindi gice kiranga agace karimo gatera imbere. Aha, abaturage bashobora kugabanywamo ibyiciro bitewe n' ubukungu bwabo uko buhagaze, cyane cyane hashingiwe ku byo binjiza. Nko mu bice by' uburengerazuba, wasangaga bagabanyije bitewe n' ubukungu: Abaherwe(abakire), abari hagati, ndetse n' abakene. Mbega Ni nka yayandi dufite mu Rwanda.

Mu Bushinwa bw' ahambere, ibyiciro byabaga biteye bitya: Intiti ndetse n'abanyepolitiki; icyiciro cya mbere gikomeye cyane. Abahinzi n' aborozi; icya kabiri, nacyo cyasaga n' igikomeyeho. Abanyabugeni (bitwaga; gong). Hanyuma hakaza igice giciriritse muri byose, abacuruzi bari bazwi nka 'shang'. Bo bagurishaga ibicuruzwa na serivisi. N' ubwo washoboraga gusanga umucuruzi akungahaye kurusha abandi, ariko yabaga ari mu kiciro cyo hasi. Ubwo bisobanuke ko uduce twahaga igisobanuro ibi byiciro bitewe n' imyumvire yabo.

Ni ibiki bishobora gukuraho/kubangamira iri terambere ry' abantu n' uduce babamo?

Impuguke zigaragaza ko icyatera ibi ari impamvu eshatu zikunze kugarukwaho cyane:

1. Impinduka z' imbere (internal changes): Nk' urugero, abantu bashobora kwiyongera, bitewe n' uko bamwe bahunze, hanyuma igice cyari gituwe kikiyongera. Ubwo imico, ururimi, ndetse n' indi myitwarire bikaba byakangiza umwimerere sosiyete yahoranye.

2. Igitutu giturutse hanze (external pressure): Birumvikana cyane, kuko niba abantu bo ubwabo bashobora kwisenya, bashobora no gusenyera abandi. Iki gitutu rero, usanga giterwa n' amahanga akenshi mu bikorwa by' intambara. Bikaba ngombwa ko uwatewe yirinda rimwe na rimwe ugasanga kubona ibikoresho by' intambara birahenze, ugasanga sosiyete ikendeye ityo! Nk' ubwami bw' abami bwa Aztec, bwakendereye bitewe n' abari baturutse mu Burayi.

3. Ugukendera kw' ibidukikije: Abahanga bagaragaza ko sosiyete ishobora kuvaho, yewe ikanazima bitewe n' ibiza cyangwa se imikoreshereze mibi y' ibibakikije.

Uku gutera imbere kwa sosiyete zitandukanye, kwagiye rimwe na rimwe guhura n' ibibazo by' ibiza kamere nk' inzara, amapfa, tsunami, n' ibindi. Uduce twahuye n' ibyago nk' ibi harimo: Maya, Ikibaya cya Indus, n' ahandi. Mu gihe ibikorwa bya muntu nabyo byabaga bitoroheye ibidukikije. nk' imwe mu mpamvu zatumye abazwi nka "Vikings" bagiye bakendera, ni ukutakira imihindagurikire y'ikirere muri Greenland.

Src: nationalgeographic.com






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