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Menya amateka ya Herriet Tubman umwe mu bagore batorotse ubucakara akanaburwanya

Yanditswe na: Gentillesse Cyuzuzo
Taliki:2/12/2019 8:54
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Tariki ya 2 Ukuboza ni umunsi mpuzamahanaga wahariwe kurwanya ubucakara. Kuri uyu munsi tugiye kubagezaho amateka ya Herriet Tubman umwe mu bagore batorotse ubucakara akanaburwanya.



Herriet Tubman yatorotse ubucakara aza gutangira gutorokesha abandi bacakara abanyujije mu mihanda ya za gali ya moshi. Herriet yari umuforomokazi, umutasi ndetse anashyigikiye ko abagore bahabwa uburenganzira bwo kujya batora. Ni umwe mu bantu bazwi cyane mu mateka ya Amerika ndetse ibigwi bye na n'ubu birigishwa mu mashuri amwe n'amwe.

Herriet Tubman yavutse ahagana mu w’i 1820 mu mujyi wa Maryland. Ababyeyi be Harriet Green ndetse na Benjamin Ross bamwise Araminta Ross ariko bakundaga kumwita 'Minty' Nyina yari umutetsi naho se yabazaga imbaho. Araminta yaje guhindura izina rye yiyita Herriet mu guha icyubahiro nyina.


Herriet yari afite basaza be umunani na barumuna be, ariko bitewe n'uko abacakara bahoraga babimura yagiye atandukana n’abavandimwe be n'ubwo yahoraga yifuza ko umuryango we wahora hamwe.

Ku myaka itanu Herriet yaratijwe ngo ajye afasha abaforomokazi kubahereza imiti, ku myaka irindwi nabwo yaratijwe ngo ajye gukora mu mirima y’ubuhinzi. Herriet yaje gutangaza ko akunda imirimo akorera hanze kuruta iyo akorera mu nzu nko gufasha abaforomokazi.

Herriet yatangiye kurwanirira abacakara bene wabo afite imya 12, ubwo umuzungu yari agiye gukubita urubuye ruremereye umucakara Herriet akitambika rukaba ari we rufata mu mutwe. Icyo gihe yaraviriranye mu mutwe ntiyagira n’ubuvuzi ahabwa uretse kujya kumuryamisha mu nzu nabwo hasi ku butaka.

Nyuma yo gukubitwa iryo buye, Herriet byamuviriyemo umutwe udakira, kujya agwa agacuho akanasinzira igihe kirekire cyane ndetse no kugira inzozi zidasobanutse.

Mu w’i 1840, se wa Harriet yahawe ukwishyira ukizana ndetse na shebuja wa nyina wa Herriet ni ko yagombaga kubigenza ariko yima ukwishyira ukizana nyina wa Herriet aguha abana be gusa.

Ahagana mu w’i 1944 Harriet yashakanye n’umugabo w’umwirabura wari ufite ukwishyira ukizana witwaga John Tubman ari bwo yahinduraga izina rye rya Ross akongeraho iry’umugabo we Tubman.

Herriet yaje kumenya amakuru ko basaza be babiri Ben na Henry bagiye kugurishwa, ahita yigira inama yo kubafata bagatorokana.

Nzeli 17, 1849 ni bwo batorotse bava i Maryland, gusa bageze mu nzira basaza be bisubiyeho bahitamo gusubira inyuma baciye mu muhanda wa gali ya moshi unyura munsi. Harriet yakoze ibirometero 90 agera i Pennsylavania.


Harriet yaje kubona akazi nk’umukozi wo mu rugo ariko ntiyanyurwa kuko yashakaga kubaho yigenga we na bene wabo. Yaje kugaruka muri Maryland acikisha babyara be abajyana i Philadelphia, yagerageje gucikisha umugabo we arabyanga kuko yari yarashatse undi mugore ahitamo kuguma muri Maryland.

Mu w’i 1850 Herriet yari amaze kuba uwambutsa abantu abanyujije mu muhanda unyura hasi wa gali ya moshi aho yahitaga afata abantu yabonye akabajyana muri Canada yo yari yarakuyeho ubucakara, aho bagendaga mu gihe cy’umuhindo cyangwa se mu itumba nabwo bagatangira urugendo mu ijoro.

Yagendaga yitwaje imbunda nk’ubwirinzi kugira ngo atere akanyabugabo abacakara bashoboraga gutekereza ku byo gusubira inyuma, yajyaga anaha abana n’impinja imiti isinziriza kugira ngo bataza kurira mu rugendo bikaba byatuma bafatwa.

Yamaze imyaka irenga icumi yambutsa abacakara, aho yaje kumenyana n’abandi bantu barwanyaga ubucakara barimo Frederick Douglass, Thomas Garrett na Martha Coffin Wright. Harriet yakijije abantu barenga 300 barimo 70 yijyaniye kugera muri Canada barimo n’ababyeyi be.

Muri 1863 yayoboye imyigaragambyo ndetse anaba umutasi w’igisirikare cyari cyarihuje, yajyaga aha amakuru abasirikare bakomeye y’inzira banyuramo ndetse anafasha gucikisha abirabura baje no gutangiza ihuriro ryabo.

Herriet yagiye ashakishwa kenshi na leta y’Amerika inashyiraho igihembo kingana na $40,000 ku muntu watanga amakuru y'ahantu yaba ari. Nyuma y’intambara yo mu w’i 1861, Harriet yagiye kubana n’umuryango we n’inshuti mu rugo rwe i New York. 

Yaje kongera gushaka n’uwahoze ari umusirikare witwaga Nelson Davis mu w’i 1869. Harriet yasubiye mu buzima busanzwe agahinga, akorora ingurube. Nubwo atari yarize yagiye akora ingendo nyinshi avugira ukwishyira ukizana kw'abagore aho banashinze ihuriro ryabo ryaje no kuyoborwa na Susan B. Anthony.

Igikomere yagize mu mutwe akiri muto yakomeje kugendana ingaruka zacyo aza no kubagwa ubwonko nubwo yakomeje kugenda arwara bya hato na hato.

Herriet yitabye Imana ku italiki ya 3 Werurwe 1913. Ibigwi bye bizahoraho, amashuri ndetse n’inzu ndangamurage zibitse amateka ye ndetse hari n’ibitabo byagiye bimwandikwaho, amafilime ndetse na filime mbarankuru zitandukanye.


Mu ntambara y’isi ya kabiri Herriet yitiriwe ubwato bw’ubwigenge, bwaje kwitwa SS Harriet Tubman. Mu w’i 2016 hatangajwe ko ifoto ya Harriet izasimbura iy’uwari Perezida wa Amerika, Andrew Jackson ku note ya 20 y’idolali.








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