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Byose biri ku gasozi! Menya byinshi kuri Application ya Pegasus ikoreshwa mu kuneka abantu (Spying)

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:7/11/2019 23:07
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Pegasus ni application imwe mu nzira zishyirwa mu majwi ko ishobora kuba ikoreshwa binjirira abagizi ba nabi, imigambi mibi yabo ikabasha kuburizwamo. Ese Pegasus ikora ite? Yubatswe na nde yari agamije iki? Ikoreshwa na nde, ese ayikoresha ate? Muri iyi nkuru urasangamo ibisubizo by'ibi bibazo byose.



Ijambo Pegasus rikoreshwa bwa mbere ryaturutse ku ba gereki aho mu myemerere yabo icyo bitaga Pegasus yari ifarashi ifite amababa, gusa mu myemerere yabo yari ikigirwamana cyari gifite ikivukanyi cyacyo kitwaga Chrysaor kikagira nyirarume wacyo witwaga Geryon. Ijambo Pegasus ubundi icyo risobanuye ni urumuri iki kigirwamana kitabazaga mu gihe cy'imvura y’umuhindo kugira ngo kizage kirwanya imirabyo ndetse n’ikubita ry’inkuba.

Mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe na Dr. Michael Brown avuga ko imyemerere y'Abagereki yababwiraga ko iki kigirwamana mu guhagarika inkuba ndetse n’imirabyo kiyifata kikayijyana ku kigirwamana kitwaga Zeus. Bishingiye ku mirimo bizeraga cyakoraga ni yo mpamvu bagifataga nk'ifarashi ifite amababa kubera ubushobozi bizeraga cyari gifite ndetse bakizera ko cyari gifite imbaraga zikomeye byatumaga bagifata nk'ikidahangarwa.

Izina Pegasus ryaje rivuye mu mwizerere ya cyera, ubu ryaserutse mu myizerere y’ikinyejana cya 21 ari yo ishingiye ku ikoranabuhanga rihambaye. Pegasus ni application bivugwa ko yubatswe n'abanya Israel binyuze mu kigo cya NSO Group, gusa ntawuzi igihe iyi application yatangiriye kubakwa, gusa benshi bavuga ko yatangiye gukora muri 2016. Ubu irimo gukoreshwa mu ngeri nyinshi zitandukanye cyane cyane mu butasi bwimbitse.

Iyi application bivugwa ko iki kigo kiyigurisha n’abantu bashaka kuneka umuntu runaka cyangwa ikaba yakoreshwa ku muntu ushaka kumenya amakuru menshi aturutse hirya no hino, gusa igihari ni uko ibihugu byinshi biri guhura nayo muri iyi minsi kenshi ni ibiba biri hafi kujya mu matora cyangwa hari ibindi bikorwa bihambaye biri gutegurwa kugira ngo hamenyekane amakuru ari mu bantu doreko iyi application ifite ubudahangarwa bwo kwinjira mu gikoresho bidasabye kuyishyiramo.

Iyo hari umuntu ushakwaho amakuru barayimwoherereza binyuze mu guhimba nimero ya telefone bagahamagara uwo bashaka binyuze kuri WhatsApp, ntabwo bisaba kwitaba icy'inyenzi ni uko baba baguhamagaye gusa, nyuma nyiri ubwite winjiriwe ibye byose bisigara biri ku gasozi kuko iyi application imenya ibyo avuga, abo bavugana, aho aherereye, aho ajya hose, ibyo akora, amafoto yifotora, ubutumwa yohereza ndetse n’ibindi byinshi.

Ese ni gute Pegasus ishobora kugera kuri telefone?Iyi application yubatswe n’ikigo gikora ibijyanye no gucunga umutekano “NSO Group” binyuze mu ikoranabuhanga (cyber-security). Hakoreshejwe Pegasus kugira ngo babe bakugabaho igitero cyangwa binjirire abantu bakoresha amatelefone, akenshi binyura mu kuguhamagara kuri whatsApp nk'uko twabivuze haruuguru, iyo witabye, iyi application ihita ikugeramo hanyuma ibyo ukora byose bigahita bijya ku gasozi kuko abo uhamagara, abo wandikira, aho ujya hose, email address, password biba byose bigaragara. 

Hagati ya Mata na Gicurasi uyu mwaka wa 2019 ikigo cya WhatsApp  cyatangaje ko abagera kuri 1400 batatswe ndetse ko benshi uburyo bwakoreshejwe kugira ngo babagereho banyuze muri uku kubahamara. Nk'uko tubicyesha ikinyamakuru cya scroll.in bagerageje kuvugana n’abayobozi bakuru ba WhatsApp babajije niba aba bantu ari bo babashije kumenya ko ari bo batatswe gusa, igisubizo cyabaye oya. Bati"Aba ni bo twabashije kubona."

Ibitero bikomeye bya Pegasus

Mu bitero bikunzwe kugabwa ku bantu binyuze kuri iyi application ikigo cya Israel NSO group cyatangaje ko cyo ntaruhare kibigiramo kuko cyo iyi application kiyigurisha na za leta gusa zikibwirako zigamije kugabanya ibitero by’ubwiyahuzi ndetse n’ubwihebe. 

Abagera ku 1400 ni bo bamaze kwinjirirwa binyuze muri ubu buryo. Ikigo cya Facebook gifite mu nshingano whatsApp cyatangaje ko kigiye kujya imbizi na NSO group bitewe no kubinjirira nubwo iki kigo kibitera utwatsi kivuga ko bakagombye kwegera ama leta kuko ariyo bakiriya babo nk'uko ikinyamakuru openaccessgovernment.org kibivuga. 

Ikigo cyo muri Canada kitwa “Citizen Lab” ni kimwe mu bikunze kugabanya ibi bitero ndetse hari n'amwe mu makuru kigenda gitanga nyuma yo gutangira gukorana n'ikigo cya WhatsApp gikorera mu kwaha kwa Facebook.

-        Kuwa 30 Ukwakira 2019, ni bwo byagaragaye ko ibihumbi by’abantu mu gihugu cy’u Buhinde bagabweho igitero binyuze kuri WhatsApp bikavugwa ko ari leta y’u Buhinde yabikoze, gusa iyi mvugo leta y’u Buhinde yayamaganiye kure ihamya ko ntaho ihuriye n'ibitero byo kuneka abaturage. Gusa uwitwa Bela Bhatia umwe mu bagabweho igitero yatangarije NDTV ko abamugabyeho iki gitero bamubwiye ko ari leta ye yabatumye. Havugwaga ko hanetswe abanyamakuru ndetse n'abandi bantu bakora ibikorwa bisanzwe, n'imiryango y'ingenga.  

-        Muri 2017 umunyamakuru ndetse n’umunyamategeko bo muri Morocco “Maati Monib na Abdessadak El Bouchattaoui” bagabweho igitero cyaje guhoshwa n’umuryango uharananira uburenganzira bwa muntu” Amnesty International”Whatsap yatangajeko abagera kuri 1400 bagabweho ibitero na application ya Pegasus muri miliyaridi 1.7 y’abakoresha uru rubuga nkoranyambaga baturutse mu bihugu 20.  

Kuwa 10, 11 Kanama 2019, ikigo cya Apple cyatangaje ko umugabo wo United Arab Emirates (UAE) witwa Ahmed Mansoor yatatswe na Pegasus gusa iki gitero cyaburijwemo bikozwe n’ikigo cya Citizen Lab binyuze mu kuba uyu mugabo yarabonye ubutumwa bari bamuhaye agahita abwoherereza iki kigo bikaza kurangira iki kigo cyemeje ko yari agiye kwatakwa na Pegasus. Ntabwo ari ibi bitero byonyine hari n’ibindi byinshi.

Byaba bishoboka kwirinda Pegasus? Niba bishoboka se wabikora gute?  

Kwirinda Pegasus birasa n’ibigoye ndetse cyane kuko mu kuza kwayo ntabwo ijya ku muntu uwo ari we wese, ijya ku muntu ari uko bayimutereje. Ibi uko bikorwa ni uko habaho guhimba nimero ya telefone itabaho igahamagara, ntabwo bisaba ko witaba ahubwo ikibaho kiba kigenderewe ni uko baguhamagaza ya nimero mpimbano kuri whatsApp. 

Ibi iyo birangiye aha telefone baguhamagayeho iba yamaze kwatakwa ibintu byose: camera, mikoro, ndetse n’imibare y’ibanga yose iyirimo biba bifite umuntu ubicunga umunota ku wundi bityo amakuru yawe yose akaba ari mu maboko y’uwagambiriye iki gikorwa.

Debayan Gupta umwarimu muri kaminuza ya mbere mu ikoranabuhanga Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) wigisha mu ishami rya Electrical engineering and computer science avugako iyi application ya Pegasus ifite ubudahangarwa buhanitse n'ubwo benshi bavuga ko ikoreshwa mu kwinjirira telefone gusa ngo ifite ubukana bwinshi.

Avugako akenshi hafi ya za leta nyinshi ziba zifite umuntu wo gukurikirana ibijyane n'ibitero nk'ibi. Uyu mugabo avugako kugira ngo umuntu uhamagawe y’injirirwe, binyura mu byitwa “Metadata” kuko baraguhamagara noneho ikigo cya WhatsApp kikohoreza ubutumwa kuri wa wundi uhamagawe agahita abibona noneho iyi nimero iba yakozwe hagamijwe kwinjirira nyiri ya telefone bahamagaye, iba ifite code zihita zijya muri telefone ye bityo akaba aratatswe.

Mu bijyanye no kwirinda kwatakwa n'iyi application ibigo bifite mu nshingano gutanga icyo twakwita ubususire bw'ama telefone ni ukuvuga haba ku bakoresha Android ya google ndetse n’abakoresha iOS ya apple, icyo ibi bigo bihuriraho ni uko bisaba abakiriya babyo guhora batyaza imiyoboro ya telefone zabo (updating operating systems) ku buryo buhoraho. Ibi bigo iyi ngingo biyihuriraho n’ikigo cya Facebook kigenga WhatsApp aho bavuga ko umukiriya yakagombye kujya amanura (download) application igezweho (updated app) mu rwego rwo kwirinda ibi bitero.     

Icyo imiryango mpuzamahanga ivuga kuri PegasusMu kwezi gushize kw'Ukwakira ni bwo ikigo cya WhatsApp cyatangaje ku mugaragaro ko kiyamye ikigo cya NSO group ku bwa Pegasus ikomeje kubateza urubwa binyuze mu kwinjirira abantu bakoresha uru rubuga nkoranyambaga, ndetse benshi mu bakoresha uru rubuga bari kwijujuta bikomeye.

Ntabwo ari iki kigo cyahagurukiye ibi kuko n'umuryango mpuzamahanga uharanira uburengaznira bwa muntu (Amnesty International) nyuma yo guhagarika ibitero byari byagabwe ku banya Cameron babiri harimo umunyamakuru ndetse n’umunyamategeko nk'uko twabibonye haruguru hakiyongeraho ibi biri kuba muri iyi minsi, uyu muryango wahise wiyama iki kigo ku bwo gukwirakwiza iyi application nubwo bisa nk'aho ntacyo byatanze.

Gusa ubu Isi yose iri kwamagana iyi application ndetse n'iki kigo kiyigurisha gusa, birasa n'agaterera nzamba kuko nk'uko bivugwa n’iki kigo cya NSO group benshi mu bakuru b'ibihugu basa n’abarwanya iyi application biba ari ukwiyerurutsa kuko ibafasha kumenya amakuru y’imitwe ibarwanya ndetse n’ibyihebe biba byarabazonze. Ubuyobozi bwa NSO group inshuro nyinshi iyo bwiregura buvuga ko abakiriya babo ari imiryango ikomeye ku Isi ndetse na za Leta bityo ko batabona impamvu yo kwamaganwa.

Kuri uyu wa 7 Ukuboza ni bwo Minisiteri y’Umutekano ya Israel (Israel’s Ministry of Defence (MoD)) izemeza neza ibijyanye n’imikorere ya Pegasus ndetse ni nabwo hazagaragara uburyo iyi application yakoreshejwe mu kuzonga abanyamakuru, abanyamategeko ndetse n’abikorera baturuka mu bihugu nka Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Mexico na the United Arab Emirates.

Abantu bagera kuri 30 baturutse mu miryango itandukanye ku bufatanye na Amnesty International yifashishije New York University mu ishami ryayo ry'amategeko bari kunononsora ibijyanye n'iki cyaha cyo kwibasirwa hagamijwe kunekwa hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga rihambaye.

Ni bande bakunze kwibasirwa na Pegasus?Related imageIkinyamakuru “openaccessgovernment.org” ku busesenguzi cyakoze kifashishije inzobere zitandukanye mu ikoranabuhanga, kitubwira ko iyi applicarion ya Pegasus ikoreshwa na za leta n’imiryango ikomeye mu kuneka amakuru akenshi ku bo baba batavuga rumwe ndetse n’ibyihebe. 

Aha akenshi birumvikana ko ikiba kigamijwe ari ukurinda umutekano wa za leta zabo gusa ku rundi ruhande havugwa ko iyi application ikunze kwibasira abanyametegeko ndetse n’abanyamakuru hagamijwe kumenya impumeko iba ibarimo.

Muri iyi minsi Isi iyobowe n’ubwenge bw’ubukorano “Artificial Intelligence” icyo bisobanuye ubu ibihugu byinshi biri kurwana umuhenerezo kugira ngo muri iki gisata barusheho kuba aba mbere, gusa rubanda rugufi bakiri hasi ku bijyanye na Artificial intelligence barakandamizwa umunsi ku wundi.   

 Src: the wire.in, nytimes.com, Firstpost.com, qz.com, ft.com...  








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