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Menya impinduramatwara n’amateka ya Haiti igihugu cyashinzwe n’abacakara

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:28/10/2019 14:22
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Mu mwaka wa 1804 ni bwo igihugu cya mbere cyashinzwe n’abahoze ari abacakara cyabonye ubwigenge, Haiti. Iyo nkundura yamaze igihe kinini yo kwigobotora kuri ba gashaka buhake b'Abanyaburayi yaje kwitwa impinduramatwara yo muri Haiti.



Mu Ukubozo 1492 ni bwo Christophe Columbus yageze kuri iki kirwa kinini cya Haiti, acyita “La Islas Espagnola” bigasobanura ikirwa cya Espagne/Spain. Uyu nubwo yakoreraga ubwami bwa Espagne/Spain yari Umutariyani. Columbus azwiho kuba ari we munyaburaya wageze cyangwa se wavumbuye umugabane wa Amerika. 

Abanya Espagne bamaze kugera kuri iki kirwa, batangiye kugira abacara abaturage kavukire bitwaga aba Taino n’aba Ciboney. Abo bacakara bategekwaga gukora mu birombe bya zahabu. Bidatinze, ubu bwoko bwatangiye gukendera kubera kugaburirwa nabi no gukora uburetwa. Nyuma y’aho zahabu ishize abanya Espagne basimbuwe n’Abafaransa bari baje mu bikorwa by’ubucuruzi n’ubuhinzi. 

Abafaransa bamaze gusimbura benewabo b’Abanyaburayi bashinze imijyi minini nka Port-de-Paix n‘indi. Ibikorwa by’aba Bafaransa byari bishingiye ku buhinzi bw’ibisheke no gukora isukari. Ikindi kintu cy’ingenzi mu mateka y’iki gihugu ni uko cyagiye gihindurirwa amazina bitewe n’abagitegekaga b’Abanyaburayi. 

Urugero: Ubwo Christophe Columbus yakandagiraga kuri iki kirwa yacyise La Islas Hispaniola, nyuma bihinwamo Hisponia. Abafaransa na bo bakihasimbura abanya Espagne bacyise Saint Domingue. Mu mwaka wa 1789 mbere gato y’uko habaho impinduramatwara ya poritiki mu Bufaransa, abaturage b’iki kirwa cya Saint Domingue bari ibihumbi 556. Muri uwo mubare wavuzwe harimo abacakara bakomoka ku mugabane w’ Afurika ibihumbi 500, abakoroni b’abanyaburayi ibihumbi 32 ndetse n’ibihumbi 24 by’abimanyi bitaga “Mulattoes” (imvange z’abirabura n’abazungu).


Iki gihugu cyagiye kirangwa n’ibibazo bishingiye ku ironda ruhu. Abirabura bijujutiraga uko bafatwaga nabi n’abazungu, ibyimanyi na byo rimwe na rimwe, nubwo bari bafite ubutunzi ndestse n’ubwigenge ntibyababuzaga kutagira ijambo nk’abera. Ibyo byatumye habaho imitwe mito yarwanyaga abazungu nubwo icyo gihe itigeze igera ku ntsinzi.

Hagati y’umwaka wa 1790 na 1804 muri Saint Domingue habaye imvururu nyisnhi. Muri iyo myaka yavuzwe habayemo intambara yahuje abakoroni b’Abongereza n’Abafaransa, havuka umutwe wa mbere w’ibyimanyi byakomokaga ku birabura n’abazungu. Vincent Ogé wari imvange y’umuzungu n’umwirabura warwanyije ubusumbane bwari bushingiye ku ibara ry’uruhu, yasabye abayoboraga gushyira mu ngiro icyo cyifuzo cye. 

Uyu Vincent abazungu bateye utwatsi igitekerezo cye na we ahitamo inzira yo gudhinga umutwe warwanyaga abazungu. Ingabo za Vincent Ogé zarizigizwe n’aba mulattoes 300. Mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1790 Vincent n’ingabo ze zigera kuri 200 barafashwe, we akatirwa igihano cyo kwicwa azira kurema umutwe wigometse.  

Mu mwaka wa 1790 na none, François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture wahoze ari umucakara kuri iyi nshuro yaje nk’umucunguzi. Uyu yaje kuba nk’ifatizo ry’umutwe warwaniraga ubwigenge bw’abirabura ukigomeka ku Bafaransa. Ubwo yarwanyaga abafaransa yaje kwifatanya n’abanya Espagne nubwo yaje kwitandukanya na bo akisubirira ku Bafaransa ubwo bari bamaze guca ubucakara. 

Urugamba rwa Tousssaint Louverture ntirwarangiriye aho kuko yakomeje kongera kurwanya Abafaransa. Nyuma yo kudacika intege no kubona ubufasha bwavaga ahantu hatandukanye, Abafaransa bamudabye ko bagirana amasezerano y’amahoro na we arabyemera. Aya masezerano Abafaransa baje kuyarengaho baramufunga apfira mu buroko azize ubukonje.

Nyuma y’ifungwa rya Toussaint Louverture guharanira ubwigenge ntibyarangiriye aho. Mu mwaka wa 1802 bamwe mu bari bungirije Toussaint bamaze kumva ko Abafaransa bongeye kugarura ubucakara muri Guadeloupe na Martinique bubuye urugamba. Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Henry Christophe na Pétion Alexndre Sabès bari mu bongeye gutangiza intambara ku Bafaransa. 

Ku itariki 8 Ugushyingo ni bwo ingabo za L’ Armée Indigène zari ziyobowe na Dessalines zamenesheje iz’abafaransa bwa byuma ubwo zari ziyobowe na Gen. Jean-Baptise-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau. Urugamba rwabaye urwa nyuma rwiswe urwa Vertières. Ku itariki ya 1 Mutarama ni bwo iki kirwa cyose cyahoze kitwa Saint Domingue cyabonye ubwigenge ku mugaragaro. Iki na none ni cyo gihugu cyambere cyabayeho cyashinzwe n’abahoze ari abacakara.

Inyandiko zifashishijwe:

·         A Revolution in Haiti, Social Triggers of the Haitian Revolution ya David Rand

·         Toussaint Louverture (Biogradsphie) ya Pierre Pluchon (Fayard,1989)

·         La Révolution française et le problème colonial (Présence Africaine, 1981)

Umwanditsi: Christian MUKAMA-InyaRwanda.com






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