Inyarwanda art Studio
Kigali

ISANZURE: Sobanukirwa imikorere y’ibyogajuru ndetse n’inyungu zabyo kubatuye Isi

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:22/10/2019 17:26
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Ni kenshi twumva ngo igihugu runaka cyohereje icyogajuru mu isanzure! Ese ibi byogajuru bishorwamo akayabo k'amafaranga atabarika byaba bimariye iki abatuye isi? Nonese ni nde ubyohereza cyangwa ni nde watangije iki gikorwa? Muri iyi nkuru tugiye kurebera hamwe imikorere ndetse n’inyungu z’ibyogajuru.



Ibyogajuru ni ikimwe mu bikorwa bikorerwa ku isi ariko usanga abatuye isi bafiteho amakuru macye ndetse cyane. Icyogajuru cyakozwe bwa mbere cyakozwe n’umuryango wa “Soviet Union” ku wa 4 Ukwakira 1957. Ni bwo icyogajuru cy'igikorano cyajyanwe mu isanzure bwa mbere, iki kitwaga Sputnik 1 gusa magingo aya ibisaga 8,900 bimaze koherezwa biturutse mu bihugu bigera kuri 40. 

Icyakora ibyogajuru bigera ku 5000 ni byo byonyine bikiri mu isanzure ni ukuvuga ibigera kuri 3900 byagezeyo birongera biragaruka, gusa nanone igihari ni uko ibigera kuri 2,062 biri mu isanzure birimo gukoreshwa umunsi ku wundi mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi gusa iby’inyungu z'ibyogajuru turabireba muri iyi nkuru hagati.  

Menya imikorere ndetse n’ingano n’amashusho y’ibyogajuru byogoga isanzure kugeza abatuye isi batangiye kubaho neza ndetse benshi batazi icyibakorera aka kazi cyangwa gituma babaho mu buzima bworoshye.

Icyogajuru gishobora kuba ari igikorano cyangwa ari karemano gusa ikizwi ni uko icyogajuru icyo ari cyose kigomba kuba kiri mu isanzure kandi kigenda gishobora kuba kiri mu isanzure kizenguruka indi mibumbe ihari urugero nk'ukwezi cyangwa iyindi mibumbe. Iyo icyogajuru kigiye koherezwa mu isanzure hagomba kuba hari umugambi ugenderewe cyangwa impamvu itumye kijyayo. 

Ubundi ibyogajuru bikoreshwa kenshi mu gutuma ubuzima bw'abatuye isi bworoha mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi. Ushobora kubona uhamagara, wumva, wohereza ubutumwa buturutse hirya no hino ku isi ukagira ngo nta kintu kibiri inyuma ni ukuvuga mu isanzure hari ibyogajuru biba biri gutuma ibi bikorwa bigenda neza.

Niwibuka neza urasanga mu minsi yo ha mbere hari ahantu wabaga uri ukaba utabasha guhamagara ariko ubu urabikora nta kibazo. Ni ukuvuga ubundi amajwi ndetse n’ikindi kintu cyose gikoresha ikoranabuhanga kigenda ari uko hari icyo twakwita umuyobora “channel” ndetse hakaba hari n'aho ubutumwa bugomba kuva (Transmitter) ndetse n'aho bugomba kujya (Reciever).

Ibi byose ntibyaba nta cyogajuru kibiri inyuma kuko n'ubwo ibi byose bikorwa ariko hari imbaraga nkenerwa zivana bwa butumwa muri “Transmitter” zikabwohereza muri channel nayo ikabugeza kuri “Receiver”. Ni yo mpamvu ubu bisa n'ibyoroshye kurusha mbere kuko magingo aya kureba Televiziyo, kumva Radiyo ndetse no guhamagara birasa n'ibyoroshye kuko mu isanzure ubu hari ibyogajuru bigera kuri 759 bikoreshwa mu itumanaho ndetse ubwoko bw'ibi byogajuru ni bwo bwinshi buri mu isanzure.

Ku bantu bakunda gukoresha Google map cyangwa Global Positioning System (GPS) ni ukuvuga iyo urimo gukoresha ibi bikoresho nta kindi bikora usibye kuba byo bikora nka Receiver noneho icyogajuru kiri mu isanzure kigakora nka Transmitter kuko cyo ubusanzwe kiba gifite amakuru kibitse harimo n’ahantu hose ku Isi noneho cyo kigahita kiguha ubutumwa bw’ahantu uherereye kuko cyo kiba kiri kureba ku Isi hose. Gihita kibona aho uri kikahakubwira cyangwa waba ushaka kujya mu gace runaka kikaba cyakuyobora ariko hifashijwe ya GPS cyangwa Google map ufite.

Ingano ndetse n’ishuhso y’ibyogajuru  Ibyogajuru bigiye bisa n'aho bitandukanye gusa akenshi bigiye bihuriye ku kugira ibice 2 by'ingenzi aribyo icyo twakwita nk'agasongero (antenna) ndetse n’igice kigiha umuriro (power source). Nk'uko twabibonye haruguru iki gicye cya Antenna twafata nk’umutwe wacyo ugifasha mu kohereza amakuru ndetse no kuyakira, naho igice cya 2 cyo icyo gikora ni uguha imbaraga icyogajuru gusa kiba kifitemo utunyangingo tw’izuba (solar cells) tugifasha guhindura urumuri ruturutse ku Izuba mo umuriro w'amashanyarazi utuma gikora cyangwa kikaba kifitemo batiri gusa nayo igakora nk'uko umwirasire uyu twanika ku izuba tugira ngo dufate urumuri ukora nawo ukaba wagiha imbaraga.

Buri hafi y’ibyogajuru byose byoherezwa mu isanzure biba bifite camera zireba hasi ndetse n’ibindi byuma bya gihanga bitera icyumvirizo (scientific sensors). Ukuri guhari ni uko izi camera icyo zikora ari zo zifata amakuru y’ibibera ku isi (mu butaka, mu mazi, mu mukirere) ndetse hari n’izindi ziba zitunze mu isanzure zigenzura imikorere y’imibumbe izenguruka izuba ndetse n’ibibera mu isanzure byose muri rusange.

Ibyogajuru bigenda mu isanzure mu buryo bubiri ari bwo “geostationary” na “polar”. Geostationary ni uburyo icyogajuru kigenda giturutse mu Burengerazuba kijya mu Burasirazuba kigendera kumurondo ugabanya isi mo kabiri (Equator) naho “Polar” kiba kigenda kiva mu Majyaruguru kijya mu Majyepho. Ese icyogajuru kigera mu isanzure gute? Icyogajuru cyoherezwa mu isanzure n’igiturika kitwa ”Rocket”. Akenshi ibyogajuru biba biri muri 36,000 km uvuye ku isi.

Ushobora kwibaza uti “Ko ibyogajuru bijya mu isanzure ari byinshi kuki bitagongana?”

Kugongana kw'ibyogajuru kurashoboka ndetse cyane mu gihe hatabayeho ubushishozi mu kucyohereza kuko hari igihe ushobora kukinyuza mu nzira irimo ikindi, gusa ukuri guhari ni uko bidakunze kubaho kuko ibigo nka NASA ndetse n'indi miryango mpuzamahanga ishinzwe kureba imikoresherezwe y'isanzure bihora bihanze amaso abohereza ibi byogajuru mu isanzure ndetse bigatanga n’amabwiriza agenderwaho mu rwego rwo kwirida iri sanganya ry’impanuka. Muri Gashyantare 2009 ibyogajuru by’itumanaho byaragonganye kimwe cyari icya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ikindi ari icy'abarusiya.

Ese itandukaniro riri hagati y’icyogajuru cy'igikorano (Artificial satellite) n’icy'umwimerere (natural satellite) ni uwuhe?Image result for images of artificial satellite and natural satelliteUbundi mu isanzure harimo ibyogajuru biri karemano aha twavuga nk’ukwezi (moon), mercury, venus…naho ibyo abantu bohereza ni byo by'ibikorano gusa byose mu isanzure nta yindi mpamvu uretse kwirwanaho kwa muntu mu gushaka icyamuramira n'ubwo hari ibihugu bibikoresha mu buryo bubi bikaza kurangira hari abatuye isi bigizeho ingaruka mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi.

Ese aya magambo atandukaniye hehe Satellite na Rocket?Icyogajuru (satellite) iyo kigiye koherezwa mu isanzure gicyenera imbaraga zikijyana cyangwa ikintu kigitiza imbaraga zo kugera aho cyigomba kugera cyangwa mu mwanya wacyo mu isanzure. Iki nta kindi kicyijyana usibye iyi mbarutso cyangwa uyu mutwazi wacyo ari wo uzwi nka “rocket”. Aha ushobora kwibaza ngo ese Rocket yatwara ibyogajuru bingahe? Ni ukuvuga nta mubare ahubwo biterwa n'uwayikoze ubushobozi yayihaye kuko urugero niba rocket igenewe gutwara satellite ipima ibiro 200kg noneho hakaba hari ibyogajuru bigera kuri 4 byose kimwe kigiye gipima ibiro 50kg nukuvuga iyi rocket izabitwara byose ibigeze mu isanzure.

Ese ni ibihe bihugu bifite ibyogajuru byinshi mu isanzure

Umuryango wa Soviet Union ni wo wohereje icyogajuru cya mbere ahagana mu 1957. Hakurikieho Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ahagana mu 1958. Nkuko tubicyesha statista.com batubwira ko mu isanzure hari ibyogajuru bigera kuri 2,062 biri gukora umunsi ku wundi. Ku rutonde rwakoze ku wa 31 Werurwe 2019 Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika niyo iyoboye urutonde aho ifite ibyogajuru 887, hagakurikiraho u Bushinwa  bufite 296, ku mwanya wa 3 hari u Burusiya bufite 150 noneho ibindi bihugu byose bisigaye bifite ibigera kuri 727.  

NI izihe mpamvu zituma ikiremwa muntu gihora gifite inyota yo kohereza ibi byogajuru mu isanzure?Jeff Bezos (Blue Origin) na Elon Musk (SpaceX) mu ihatana hagati yabo mu kwigarurira isanzure 

Imikorere y’ibyogajuru iri gutuma isi ishora imali itagira ingano mu mishinga yo kubyubaka ndetse hari ibigo bikomeye bifite imishinga yo kogoga isanzure bikaribyaza umusaruro aha twavuga nka Spacex, Blue Origin …. Ibi bigo byose ushobora guhita wibaza uti “Ko bishoramo amafaranga atagira ingano biyagaruza gute?” Ikindi kibazo ushobora kwibaza kiragira kiti”Ko wumva ngo igihugu runaka cyohereje icyogajuru mu isanzure inyungu ni izihe biba bifitemo?

Ubundi ibigo bishora amafaranga y’umurengera muri iyi mishanga yo kohereza ibyogajuru mu isanzure, akenshi biba bigamije ubucuruzi nk'uko undi wese yashora imali mu bindi bintu gusa cyane cyane mu kuba ubukombe mu ikoranabuhanga rihambaye kandi ibi iyo bimaze kugerwaho niho hava amafaranga atagira uko angana ndetse no kubona icyubahiro.

Aha ushobora kuba utajya ubitecyereza ariko nawe urayatanga binyuze mu mafaranga utanga yo guhamagara kugira ngo bya byogajuru bitware y’amajwi biyakujyanire k'uwo ushaka ndetse na murandasi ukoresha byose ibi bigakorwa n’ibyogajuru biri mu isanzure byagenewe Itumanaho (communications satellites). 

Bamwe mu bakire isi ifite bafite imishinga yo kujya mu isanzure kuribyaza umusaruro. Aha twavuga nk'umukire wa mbere ku isi Jeff Bezos akaba na nyiri ikigo cya Amazon ufite indoto yo kujya ku kwezi muri 2023 aho akunze kuvuga ko uyu mushinga wananiye ikigo cya NASA akaba azabifashwamo n’ikigo cye “Blue Orgin”. Undi muntu ujya wohereza ibyogajuru ni Elon Musk binyuze mu kigo cye kitwa SpaceX. Abandi bakunze kugerageza gukorera ubushakatsi mu isanzure bakunze kuba ari ibigo bya Leta ndetse n’ibigo by’igenga bikomeye.

Ibikorwa bikunze gukoreshwa hifashishijwe ibyogajuru biri mu isanzure

ü  Nk'uko twari twabikomojeho haruguru, ibyogajuru ni byo bituma tureba television neza, guhamagara ahantu waba uri hose, kumva radio nta kibazo ndetse no gukoresha murandasi yihuta ndetse ntanamananiza aha ibyogajuru bikoreshwa mu rurimi rw’icyogereza n'ibyo bita” communications satellites”

ü  Ni kenshi dukunze kwibaza ngo umuntu ufotora isi cyangwa igihugu cyose aba ari hehe, igisubizo ni uko ibi byose bikorwa n’ibyogajuru (Earth observation satellites).

ü  Ibyogajuru ni byo bikoreshwa mu kugena iteganya gihe biturutse ku makuru biba byafashe aturutse mu isanzure (weather detection)

ü  Gukora ikarita iyo ari yose ikorwa kuko haba habanje gukoreshwa icyogajuru mu gufata amakuru y’ibanze (earth's surface mapping)

ü  Ibyogajuru bikoreshwa mugutata cyangwa kuneka(spying)

ü   Ni kenshi twumva igeragezwa ry’ibitwaro bya kirimbuzi hano naho ibyo gajuru bikoreshwamo (missile launch detection). Binadufasha kumenya isi n'ibiyituye byose. Ese icyogajuru gishobora kumara igihe kingana gute mu kirere?.

Icyogajuru (satellite) akenshi imyaka bikunze kumara mu isanzure bigitanga umusaruro ni imyaka iri hagati 3-4 gusa ibyogajuru by’inshi bishobora kuba byakongererwa ubushobozi bikaba byakomeza gukora bisanzwe. Icyogajuru cyoherejwe mu isanzure kunshuro ya 4 kitwaga “Vanguard 1” . Iki cyogajuru cyoherejwe ahagana mu 1958 gusa kubera uku kucyonyerera ubushobozi kugeza muri 2015 cyari kigikoreshwa iki cyakoreshwa mu gutanga amashanyarazi avuye ku izuba.

Src: asc-csa.gc.ca, socratic.org, nasa.gov, online-sciences.com, spaceweather.sansa.org.za, earth.com








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