Inyarwanda art Studio
Kigali

Inzara zikomeye zabayeho mu mateka y’isi zigahitana abatari bake !

Yanditswe na: Kaliza Liliane
Taliki:5/02/2019 15:58
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Burya amateka ya buri gihugu agirwa n’ibintu byinshi bitandukanye ibyiza n’ibibi ariko habaho ibitakwibagirana na rimwe mu mateka.



Inzara mu isi yagiye iba icyago gikomeye ndetse cyahitanye umubare mu munsi w’abantu mu bihe bitandukanye, iyo uvuze inzara nk’icyago mu Rwanda , abakiri bato ntibayumva uretse ko n’abakuru batayivugaho rumwe icyo abenshi bahurizaho ni Inzara yiswe Ruzagayura yabayeho mbere ya Repubulika ya mbere ahagana mu mwaka wa 1959 igahitana abatari bake abandi bagahunga ibice bari batuyemo.

Muri rusange mu isi hari ibihugu byakunze kwibasirwa ku buryo bukomeye n’inzara ndetse bisa naho inzara yagiye ibabera umushyitsi ugenda agaruka mu bihe binyuranye. Umugabane w’uburayi muri rusange wakunze kwibasirwa inshuro nyinshi n’inzara mu bice bitandukanye. Ibihugu by’Ubufaransa, Ubushinwa, Ubwongereza na Mexique biza ku isonga mu byo inzara yagiye itera ubudasiba.

Inzara mu Gihugu cy’Ubufaransa

Mu myaka ya 859-860 haguye urubura rukomeye rwangiza ibihingwa byose rwakurikiwe n’inzara yahitanye abatagira umubare, nyuma yaho gato muri 874-875 Habaye icyorezo gikomeye, iyo nzara yahitanye abarenga 1/3 cy’abaturage bose, abarenga 2.000.000 bahasiga ubuzima.

Nyuma y’imyaka ijana gusa urubura rwongeye kugwa 974-975 mu gihugu cyose maze rukurirwa n’inzara ikomeye yahitanye abasaga 2.000.000. Mu myaka ya1097, 1528, 1650–1652 hagiye haba inzara zikomeye zagiye ziterwa n’urubura ndetse n’intambara ariko iya hitanye abantu benshi ni iyo mu mwaka wa 1693–1694 aho yatanye 2.200.000. Mu mwaka wa 1709 iki gihugu cyongeye kwibasirwa n’inzara yahitanye abasaga 600.000, Inzara yanyuma ihereka muri iki gihugu yabaye mu mwaka wa 1788 yatewe n’iruka ry’ikirunga cya Lakagígar , usibye ko hari ibitabo bimwe bivuga ko yaba yaratewe n’imyuzure yatewe n’umuyaga wa El Niño.Kubera ubukana iyi nzara yari yadukanye yatumye habaho impinduramatwara mu gihugu cy’ubufaransa.

Inzara mu gihugu cy’Ubushinwa

Ubushinwa bwagiye bwibasirwa n’inzara zikomeye mu mateka nko mu myaka ya 875 iyi nzara ikaba yarakurikiwe no kwigaragambya gukomeye kw’abaturage, indi nzara ikomeye yadutse hagati y’umwaka wa 1333–1337. Nyuma hafi y’imyaka Magana atatu mu myaka ya 1630–1631 hateye inzara iteye ubwoba ihitana abasaga 2.000.000 ndetse iyi nzara niyo yatumwe ingoma ya Ming isenyuka muri 1644.

Mu myaka ya 1810, 1811, 1846 na 1849 bahayeho inzara yahitanye abashinwa basaga 45.000.000

Hagati y’umwaka wa 1850-1873 habayeho Amapfa n’inzara ikomeye cyane mu gihugu yatewe intambara yashyamiranije abari bagize ingoma ya Taiping n’abashakaga kugarura ingoma ya Ming, iyi nzzra ikaba yarahitanye abashinwa brenga 60.000.000 Inzara yo muri1907, 1911 yamaze imyaka itanu nayo abashinwa ntibayibagirwa ndetse n’isi muri rusange uko yahitanye abantu 25.000.000

Mu mwaka wa1928–1930 hongeye kwaduka inzara ihitana 3.000.000, nyuma yaho gato mu mwaka wa 1936 indi nzara yishe abashinwa 5.000.000 , Inzara mbi abashinwa baheruka nk’uko byemezwa n’ikigo cy’igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare mu bushinwa yahitanye 15.000.000 ni iyabaye mu mwaka wa 1959–1961.

Inzara mu gihugu cy’ubuhinde

Amateka agaragaza ko inzara ya mbere yazahaje igihugu cy’ubuhinde ari iyabaye mu myaka ya1022, 1033, 1052 aho yasize itsembyeho abantu bose mu ntara z’ibyaro ariko by’umwihariko Hindustan.

Indi nzara itoroshye yadutse ahagana muri 1344–1345 ihitana abatari bake,Mu myaka ya 1396–1407 hateye inzara bise Durga Devi iyi nayo iyo abahinde bayibutse bakuka imitima, Mu myaka yakurikiye nko muri 1661 na 1669 habayeho inzara zahitanye benshi ariko iyabaye mu mwaka 1702–1704 mu bice byaDeccanyahitanye abasaga 1.500.000, Inzara abahinde bahora batekerezaho ni inzara y’i Bengale muri 1770 aho abarenga Miliyoni 15 bapfuye, ni ukuvuga ngo umuturage umwe muri batatu mu gihugu barapfuye icyo gihe. Nyuma y’imyaka mike 1983 hadutse indi nzara bise Chalisa ihitana abarenga 11.000.000, Mu mwaka 1866 mu ntara ya Orissa hateye inzara ihitana 1.000.000 , Inzara yabaye mu mwaka wa 1869 mu bice byaRajputanayahitanye 1.500.000

Inzara mu gihugu cy’Ubwongereza

Igihugu cy’ubwongereza cyagiye cyibasirwa n’inzara mu bihe bitandukanye ariko nko mu mwaka wa1235 mu mujyi wa Londres honyine yapfuye abasaga 200.000 kubera inzara, mu mwaka wa 1586 igihugu cyatewe n’inzara ikomeye bituma abayobozi bahaguruka botora abategeko arenge abakene, inzara yakomeye kujya ibazahaza mu mwaka ya 1649, 1727 aho abatari bake bagiye bahasiga ubuzima.

Inzara mu Gihugu cy’Uburusiya

Mu myaka ya 1601 na 1603 igihugu cyibasiwe n’inzara yavuzaga ubuhuha kugeza ubwo abarenga 2.000.000 ibahitanye ; mu murwa mukuru hapfuye 100.000, yicwa 1/3 by’abatuye Godounov ndetse ½ cy’abaturage ba Estonie. Mu myaka ya 1891–1892 inzara yadutse yahitanye ubuzima bw’ababarirwa hagati ya 375.000 na 500.000.

Amateka inzara ifite mu isi ni maremare cyane kuko nta mugabane ihezwaho ndetse nta gihugu itinjiramo cyane ko idasaba Visa ahenshi, nahari hagowe ko ihinjira abantu ubwabo nibo bayikingurira mu buryo bw’intambara, kwangiza ibidukikije n’ibindi.Amteka agaraza ko umugabane w’uburayi wose wagiye wibasirwa n’icyorezo cy’inzara cyane ndetse n’Asiya.

Ku mugabane w’Amerika ibihugu byagiye byibasirwa cyane ni Mexique n’icyitwa USA ubu.

Ku mugabane w’ Afurika ibihugu byakunze kwibasirwa ni Etiyopiya, Misiri, Maroke, Tuniziya, Cap Vert ibihungu byo mu burengerazuba by’Afurika ndetse n’icyahoze cyitwa Rwanda-Urundi

Mu Rwanda n’Uburundi hagiye hibasirwa n’inzara zikomeye abaturage bagasuhukira mu bihugu bituranyi cyane cyane RDC Congo

Src: lesaviezvous.com








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