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Amateka ya Eugene Poubelle wahinduye Isi ubwo yavumburaga ibikoresho bakusanyirizamo imyanda byaje no kumwitirirwa

Yanditswe na: Soter Dusabimana
Taliki:20/07/2020 10:43
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Kubera ubwiyongere bw'abaturage mu mijyi itandukanye ku Isi mu binyejana bishize no gutera imbere mu nganda, hagiye habaho ikibazo cy'umwanda ukabije rimwe na rimwe ugateza indwara zitandukanye. Nyuma ni bwo havumbuwe igikoresho kizwi nka Poubelle. Menya amateka ya Eugene Poubelle wavumbuye ibikoresho bakusanyirizamo imyanda.



Ahagana mu 1800 mu bihugu by’iburayi cyane cyane mu Bufaransa, kubaho abantu basaga n’abacucitse mu mijyi byatangiye guteza ikibazo gikomeye cyane cy’umunuko ukabije, hamwe n’indwara z’umwanda n’iz’ubuhumekero zose zaterwaga n’ibisigazwa by’ibikoresho runaka byavaga mu mazu ndetse n’inganda zarimo zivuka.

Byabaye ikibazo gikomeye kugeza ubwo abantu bamwe bafashe icyemezo cyo kujya bakora ingendo ndende, bakajya bava gukora mu mijyi bakemera bagataha mu byaro aho abantu babaga batandukanye cyangwa badacucitse cyane, bakagira aho bamena imyanda hisanzuye ku buryo byagaragaraga ko mu cyaro ariho hari isuku ugereranyije no mu mujyi.

Mu mijyi y’ubu, abenshi muri twe ntitujya dutekeraza inkomoko y’ibikoresho bihagaragara cyane bizwi ku izina rya Poubelle bituma imijyi n’ibihugu bishimwa ku ruhando mpuzamahanga kubera kurabagirana no kunogera ijisho, kuko ibidakenewe byose kandi biteza umwanda bijugunywa muri ibyo bikoresho kuva mu myaka myinshi itambutse.

recycle bin

Iki gikoresho cyizwi nka poubelle cyafashije imwe mu migi kurabagirana

Mbere y’imyaka 150 ishize mu bihugu byari biteye imbere, ibintu byabaga bitagikenewe byajugunywaga ku gasozi cyangwa se ababishoboye bakabihuriza hamwe bakabitwika. Aho impinduramatwara mu nganda iziye (industrial revolution), hacuzwe ibintu byinshi birimo n’ibikozwe mu binyabutabire nka Plastic bitari bisanzwe ho byatumaga imijyi yandura cyane.

Kubera iyo mpamvu mu gihugu cy’u Bufaransa umugabo witwa Eugene Poubelle yatangiye kwiga uburyo imijyi yagirirwa isuku bitagoranye, kandi n’ibikoresho byakoreshejwe bikaba bishobora gusubizwa mu nganda bigakorwa mo ibindi (recycling) bikaba byakusanywa mu buryo bworoshye kandi budateza umwanda.

Eugene Poubelle ni muntu ki?

Eugene Poubelle

Eugène-René Poubelle yavukiye mu muryango uciriritse ariko bitari cyane (Middle class) mu gihugu cy’u Bufaransa, avuka kuwa 15 Mata 1831 mu gace kitwa Caen. Yize ibijyanye n’amategeko muri kaminuza, aza no kubibonamo impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga PhD. Yigishije muri kaminuza zinyuranye harimo nk’iya Caen aho avuka, iya Grenoble ndetse n’iya Toulouse.

Mu 1871 Poubelle yagizwe umukuru w’intara ya Charente, nyuma yaho agenda yimurwa ngo ayobore izindi ntara nka Isère, Corsica, Doubs hamwe na Bouches-du-Rhône. Kuva mu 1883 kugera mu 1896 Eugene yagizwe umuyobozi w’umujyi ukomeye cyane mu Bufaransa witwa Seine.

Poubelle nk’umuyobozi ubwo yari ari mu biro bye yibajije icyo yakorera imijyi yo mu gihugu cye kugira ngo igire isuku. Yahise atekereza ko byaba byiza imyanda ya buri rugo cyangwa se uruganda igiye ikusanyirizwamo imbere aho nyine, ubundi ikazahakurwa ikajya kujugunywa kure ya rubanda, ahantu habugenewe nk’uko mbese bimeze muri iki gihe.

Mu gitondo cyo ku wa 7 Werurwe mu 1884 Eugene Poubelle yari yamaze kuvumbura bwa mbere igikoresho atari azi ko kizahinguranya ibinyejana gihetse izina rye ku bitugu, kikarizengurutsa isi yose aho buri muntu usirimutse cyangwa se n’undi wese usobanukiwe ko umwanda atari mwiza, aba ategetswe kumenya iki gikoresho.

Office recycle bin

Ibi bikoresho bizwi nka Poubelle bigaragara ahantu henshi ndetse no mu biro

Ibi bikoresho byifashishwa mu gukusanya imyanda bikivumburwa, Eugene yari yategetse ko buri rugo rugomba kugira ibisa n’amadomoro atatu afite Litiro ziri hagati ya 40 na 120. 

Aha yategetse ko kimwe kigomba kujya gishyirwa mo imyanda ibora, ikindi impapuro n’imyenda naho icya gatatu bakagishyiramo ibintu nk’amasahane, ibikombe, amasorori, ibyuma, amacupa y’inzoga n’ibindi bintu bitabora.

Abaturage b’umujyi wa Paris muri icyo gihe bageraga kuri million 2, bari bakeneye uburyo ya madomoro y’imyanda azajya asukurwa, imyanda ikavanwamo ikajugunywa buri nyuma y’igihe runaka, maze hahita hajyaho n’abantu bashinzwe gukora ako kazi mu mijyi myinshi. 

Ibi bikoresho abaturage bakusanyirizaga mo imyanda batangiye kubyitirira umuyobozi wabo wari uri kubategeka kubigira mu ngo zabo, ndetse utabifite agahanwa.

Iri zina rya Poubelle ryamenyekanishijwe cyane ndetse rinatizwa umurindi n’inkuru yari yari yahawe umutwe uvuga ngo udusanduku tw’imyanda (Boîtes Poubelle),ikaba yarasohotse mu kinyamakuru Le Figaro cyasomwaga na benshi muri icyo gihe, maze rubanda bose bafata izina Poubelle mu mutwe batyo.

Mu ntangiriro ubu buryo bwari buzanywe n’uyu mugabo Eugène Poubelle mu burayi, bwahuye n’inzitizi nyinshi zinyuranye, nk’aho ba nyiri amazu babanje kwanga kwishyura amafaranga yo kujya kumena ya myanda yabaga iri muri za Poubelle azwi kuri iki gihe nk’amafaranga y’isuku.

Abantu batandukanye batangiye kurwanya ubu buryo bushya uyu mugabo yari azanye aha twavuga nk’itsinda ry’abantu bitwaga Chiffornniers, aba akazi kabo kari ukugenda mu mijyi itandukanye bakusanya imyenda n’ibindi bikoresho bitandukanye bitagikoreshwa bakajya kubigurisha mu bice by’icyaro. Ni bwo iri tsinda ryatangiye kuzenguruka mu mijyi itandukanye ryangiza ibi bikoresho.

Izina Poubelle ryarogeye hose, bwa mbere mu 1890 riza kwemezwa ku ruhando rw’isi nk’ijambo rishya mu gifaransa, maze rishyirwa mu nkoranyamagambo mpuzamahanga izwi ku izina rya Grand Dictionnaire Universel du 19ème Siècle.

Mu 1892 igihugu cy’u Bufaransa cyatewe n’icyorezo cya Cholera, nyuma y’imyaka ibiri gusa, ni ukuvuga mu 1894 uyu mugabo yashyizeho uburyo ingo nyinshi mu gihugu zegerezwaga amazi meza, nyuma gato iki cyorezo cyaje gucika mu gihugu cyose kubera ingamba zafashwe n'uyu mugabo.

Iby’urupfu rwa Eugene Poubelle n’uburyo yahawe icyubahiro

Poubelle yitabye uwamuhanze ku wa 15 Nyakanga mu 1907 agwa i Paris mu mujyi, ni uko ashyingurwa mu mva rusange izwi ku izina rya Herminis cementry iri hafi y’umujyi witwa Carcassone.

Mu rwego rwo kumuha icyubahiro yakorewe ikibumbano kigaragaza umutwe we n’intugu, kikaba kiri iruhande rw’inzu ndangamurage isurwa cyane aho mu Bufaransa yitwa Musée des Beaux-Arts

statue

Mu rwego rwo kumushimira kandi hubatswe umuhanda witirirwa izina rye: Rue Eugène Poubelle ukaba uherereye rwagati mu murwa mukuru Paris.

Src: Le figaro & Wikipedia






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