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Insinga munsi y’inyanja: Ni nde ugenga isoko mpuzamigabane rihuriye ku miyoboro ya murandasi ?

Yanditswe na: Christian Mukama
Taliki:17/05/2020 22:32
0

Magingo aya, hari abasomera iyi nkuru kuri za terefoni zabo ngendanwa abandi kuri za mudasobwa zabo. Ubu ingingo igezweho muri iki gisekuru cya 4 cya murandasi abantu nta kindi bafite mu mutwe usibye ukuntu bashimagiza uburyo ihererekanwa ry’amakuru (data) ribaho bitabaye ngombwa ko ibyuma dukoresha muri icyo gikorwa bihuzwa n’insinga.



Ubu iyi umuntu yitegereje hirya no hino mu ngo cyangwa mu buzima bwa buri munsi duhoramo, usanga buri wese aho ari yihereranye n’igikoresho cye cy’ikoranabuhanga agikoresha ibintu bitandukanye. Bamwe uzasanga bakunda guhugira ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, abandi bitabira inama hakoreshejwe uburyo bw’iyakure, abandi bakorera akazi i muhira, byose babikesha murandasi. 

Kugira ngo aya makuru dukenera kohereza cyangwa kwakira atugereho bisaba ko abakenera izi serivise za murandasi kandi izo na zo zikenera ibikorwaremezo. Ingero zoroshye kumvikana harimo iminara, ibyogajuru n’ibindi ariko uyu munsi turibanda ku nsinga ziri munsi y’inyanja zidufasha guhererekana aya makuru ya murandasi.

Kuva Virginia muri Amerika kugeza Bilbao muri Espagne hari urutsinga rwitwa Marea ruhuje ibi bihugu runyura mu nyanja ya Atlantic. Uru rutsinga rumaze kuvugwa rufite uburebure bwa kirometero 6400 rukaba rwashyizweho n’ibigo bya Microsoft ndetse na Facebook. 

Uyu mugozi ufite ubushobozi bwo kohereza amakuru angana na Terabits 160 ku isegonda, ibi bisobanuye ko uru rutsinga rufasha mu gikorwa cyo guhererekanya amakuru angana na ¾ by’amakuru ahererekanywa kuri murandasi ku isi yose. Uru ni rwo rutsinga rufite imbaraga kurusha izindi zose 428 zica munsi y’inyanja.

Insinga nk'izi zatangiye kugaraga mu isi yo guhererekanya amakuru ahagana mu mwaka wa 1851 ubwo zakoreshwaga ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane i Burayi. Urutsinga rwa mbere rwabayeho rwahuje Cap Gris-Nez mu Bufaransa na Douvres mu Bwongwereza. Mu mwaka wa 1858 ni bwo mu mazi magari y’inyanja y’Atlantic hashyizwemo urutsinga rwa mbere rwahuzaga Ireland na Terre-Neuve muri Amerika. 

Kuva mu wa 1858 hagiye hashyirwa izindi nsinga nyinshi mu mazi ku buryo mu mwaka wa 1900 mu mazi y’inyanja ziri ku isi harimo insinga zifite uburebure bwa kirometero 200,000. Izi nsinga mu Rwanda kimwe no ku isi yose zizwi nka “Fibre optique/optical fiber”. Kugira ngo ibi bijyanye n’ihererekanwa ry’amakuru rigenzurwe kandi ryitabweho hashyizweho umuryango witwaga “Union Télégraphique Internationale” mu mwaka wa 1865 nyuma uza kwitwa “International Telecommunications Union”.

Izi nsinga mu ngano zazo ziba zifite umubyimba nk’uw’umusatsi w’umuntu nuko ibizikikiza zibirinda kwangirika ari byo bituma ziba nini. Mu buryo zikozemo bituma amafi manini yo mu Nyanja atazirya nubwo bitazibuza guhura n’ibindi byonnyi nk’imitingito.

Ese ni nde ugenga iri soko rihagaze agera kuri Miriyari 2,000 z’Amadorari y’Amerika?

Uyu munsi insinga zingana na Kirometero 1,300,000 zizengurutse isi ngo turusheho kugira serivisi nziza za murandasi. Ubu burebure bukubye umuzenguruko w’isi inshuro 32. Izi nsinga zitwara 99% y’amakuru dukoresha kuri murandasi dore ko 0.37% atwarwa n’ibyogajuru. Ese zigengwa na nde? 

Izi nsinga 428 ziri munsi y’inyanja inyinshi zigenzurwa na “Alcatel Submarine Networks” (ASN) ikaba sosiyete y’Abafaransa, TE SubCom ikaba sosiyete y’Abanyamerika, ntitwakwirengagiza na sosiyete y’Abayapani yitwa NEC. Uko imyaka iza hari izindi sosiyeti zitabira iri soko aho twavuga nka Huwai na Orange. Twasoza twibukiranya ko Abarusiya bafite sositeye zabo zikora ibi bikorwa k’ubw’ubusugire bw’amakuru yabwo. 

Src: interestingengineering.com & cite-telecoms.com






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