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Ntibigishidikanwaho: Ubuzima burashoboka kuri Mars, Sobanukirwa byinshi kuri uyu mubumbe

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:14/05/2020 18:05
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Umubumbe w’Isi ari wo utuwe cyane, nyuma yo guhura n’ibiza ndetse n’indwara z'ibyorezo, benshi bibaza niba nta handi hantu bahungira cyangwa ubuzima bwababera bwiza. Ibi ni byo bituma inzobere nyinshi zitajya zisinzira aho ziri kwiga ahantu ubuzima bwaba bwiza. Waba uzi ko kuri Mars ubuzima bushoboka? Ese abantu bazajyayo guturayo ryari?.



Ubwiyongere bukabije bw’abantu ku isi, icyendera ry’imitungo kamere y’isi nka peteroli n’iyindi, imihindagurikire ya hato na hato y’ikirere ndetse n’ibindi byinshi bituma hibazwa ejo hazaza h’uyu mu bumbe ucumbikiye ibinyabuzima bitabarika.

Mu binyabuzima byose bituye isi, Umuntu wenyine ni we uhangayikishijwe cyane n’ibihe bizaza ku bwo kwikanga ko isaha n’isaha ubuzima ku isi bwahagarara.

Ibi bigaragazwa n’amajoro abashakashatsi barara buri munsi bahiga ahariho hose mu isanzure umuntu ashobora kuba yahumeka, akarya, akaryama mu buryo kamere mbese ubuzima bugakomeza kandi atari kuri uyu mubumbe w’isi dutuye.

Ibi bikorwa atari ukugira ngo hagaragazwe gusa intambwe imaze guterwa mu ikoranabuhanga, ahubwo ni no mu buryo bwo gushaka ubuhungiro kugira ngo igihe kubaho bizaba biri kwanga ku Isi, noneho bizashoboke kuba hari ahandi ikiremwa muntu cyatura.

Mu mibumbe igaragiye izuba aho bishoboka hose, ibigo bitandukanye ku isi bishinzwe kugenzura iby’isanzure ntibisiba kuhohereza ibyuma kabuhariwe ngo birebe ko iby’ibanze ubuzima bukenera ngo bushoboke bihaboneka.

Ahashyirwa mu majwi uko bwije n’uko bukeye ni ku mubumbe wa Mars uzwi ku izina ry’umubumbe utukura kubera uko ugaragara. Uyu mubumbe ni uwa kane uvuye ku zuba ukaba ukurikira Isi kuko ari iya gatatu.

Mars umubumbe utukura aho ubuzima bukekwa

Gukeka ubuzima kuri Mars bwa mbere byabaye mu 1970 ubwo ikigo cy’abanyamerika gishinzwe gukora ubushakashatsi ndetse n’ingendo mu isanzure NASA, gikoresheje ibyuma kabuhariwe habonywe ibimenyetso by’uko amazi mu minsi ya none ajya atemba cyangwa yaba yarigeze gutemba ku butaka bwa Mars.

Muri icyo gihe habonywe imyunyu yumye (Hydrated salts) mu bisa n’imiferege cyangwa se imiringoti igiye iri ku butaka buhanamye bwa Mars. Bikagaragariza abashakashatsi ko byanze bikunze haba hari ikintu gitemba cyaba cyarahanyuraga kikahaca iyo miferege kikahasiga n’imyunyu kandi icyo kintu kikaba gishobora kuba ari amazi.

Iyi myunyu ni nayo ikoreshwa mu mihanda y’iburayi n’ahandi mu gukuraho urubura mu gihe cy’ubukonje bukabije, kuko yifitemo ubushobozi bwo gutuma amazi abirira ku bushyuhe bwo hasi bityo n’urubura rugahinduka amazi nyamara nta bushyuhe bukoreshejwe.

Ibi rero abashakashatsi bakabiheraho bavuga ko iyi myunyu yaba yaratumye urubura rwari ruri ku misozi ya Mars rushonga rukamanuka ari amazi iyo miyoboro ikaboneka ityo.

Imyunyu igaragara ku misozi ya Mars

Amazi kuri Mars: Ibintu bifatika byavumbuwe bibyemeza

Birashoboka ko amazi yaba agitemba kuri Mars n’ubu, ariko ibi ntibyoroshye kubisobanura. Ubushakashatsi bwimbitse bw’amazi ku mubumbe utukura (Mars) nk’uko ukunze kwitwa bwatwaye imyaka irenga 15 kugira ngo hemezwe ibintu byumvikana bisobanura neza ukuntu na n’uyu munsi amazi ashobora kuba ari hariya hantu.

Mu myaka yashize itazwi umubare, imigezi, inzuzi ndetse n’inyanja bishobora kuba byari bitwikiriye ubutaka bw’umubumbe wa Mars.

Ø  None ayo mazi yaba yaragiye he ko hagaragara ibishanga byumye n’ibiyaga byakamye?

Ø  Ni iki cyaba cyihishe inyuma y’ishira ry’ayo mazi?

Ø  Ese niba hari amazi yaba ahasigaye arangana ate?

Ibi n’ibindi bibazo byinshi ni byo abashakashatsi mu by’isanzure bahora bashakira ibisubizo ngo uriya mubumbe witezweho ubutabazi mu minsi itaha amaherezo uzaturwe.

Mu bigaragara, umubumbe utukura (Mars) mu hahise hawo wari ufite imigezi inzuzi n’inyanja mu buryo budashidikanywaho. Mu myaka myinshi ishize, Mars yari umubumbe uhehereye ushobora kuba wari utuweho n’udukoko tutaboneshwa amaso mu bice bimwe na bimwe byawo.

Uyu mubumbe ni muto ugereranyije n’isi, ufite rukuruzi nkeya n’ikirere cyawo gifite umubyimba muto. Birashoboka rero uko ibihe byagiye bihita, amazi yari ahari yagiye ahinduka umwuka ujya mu isanzure maze yose arashira umubumbe usigara ari ubutayu.

Kuri Mars amazi agaragara he?

Amazi yaho bisa nk'aho yaba atemba ava mu misozi iri ahantu hadahanamye cyane. Mu 2011 hifashishijwe ibyuma bifata amashusho (camera) byashyizwe ku cyuma kabuhariwe cyoherejwe n’abanyamerika ngo gikore ubushakashatsi kuri Mars kitwa Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) kuri Mars hagiye hagaragara imiferege iza rimwe ubundi ikabura, aho byemejwe ko yaba yaratewe n’amazi arimo umunyu ajya ahatemba.

Imiferege ikekwa ko yaba icibwa n’amazi ku misozi ya Mars

Mu 2015 ubundi bushakashatsi bwarakozwe bwemeza ko iriya miferege iterwa n’amazi arimo imyunyu ahatemba. Ivumburwa ry’imyunyu rero muri iriya miyoboro ni ikimenyetso cy’uko itahizanye ahubwo yahasizwe n’ikintu gitemba kandi ibihamya byinshi bikagaragaza ko icyo kintu cyaba ari amazi.

Umushakashatsi muri kaminuza y’Ikoranabuhanga ya Georgia ho muri Atlanta (USA) yatangaje ko ku mpera ya ruguru n’iy'epfo bya Mars habonetse ibibumbe by’urubura aho mu gihe cy’ubushyuhe bwinshi ibyo bibumbe bigabanuka mu ngano kubera gushonga. Naho mu gihe cy’ubukonje bwinshi byaguka mu mubyimba ukagera hafi kuri kilometero eshatu.

Urundi rubura kandi rwagaragaye munsi y’ubutaka. Abashakashatsi bavumbuye ikibuye kinini cy’urubura ngo kingana na leta ya California n’iya Texas zombi zifatanye, kikaba giherereye hagati y’umurongo muganda ugabanya mo umubumbe kabiri (equator) n’impera ya ruguru (Noth pole) aho nyine kuri Mars. Mu bigaragara rero hari n’ibindi bice by’uriya mubumbe wenda bitaragaragara ariko bishobora kuba bibitse amazi.

Icyogajuru cy’ikigo cy’abanyaburayi gishinzwe iby’isanzure (European Space Agency) giherutse gufata amashusho y’urubura ruherereye ku ndiba y’imyobo migari iba hejuru ku misozi ya Mars (craters) bigaragaza neza ko haba hiretse amazi afite ingano runaka.

Indi myobo iri kudusongero tw’imisozi ya Mars yafotowe n’ikindi cyogajuru cy’abanyaAmerika nayo igaragaza neza rwose ko ifite urubura ku ndiba zayo. 

Imyobo iba ku dusongero tw’imisozi ya Mars ifite urubura ku ndiba

Ibimenyetso bya mbere by’uko umubumbe wa Mars ufite amazi ku buryo budashidikanywaho byabonetse mu 2000 ubwo habonekaga ibibaya bisa nk’aho byarimo ibintu bisukika. Iyi ngingo ikaba yaranagiweho impaka nyinshi cyane mu myaka yakurikiye.

N’ubwo bimeze bityo ariko siko abantu bose babyemeza ko hariya hantu hari amazi. Hari abandi bashakashatsi bavuze ko imiferege yabonetse yakozwe yatewe n’umuyaga wahushye umukungugu ndetse n’imicanga bigakora ibisa n’imiringoti nk’uko mu butayu bigenda. Ibi byatumye umushakashatsi witwa Colin Dundas avuga ko rwose Mars nta kitwa amazi cyahigeze ahubwo ko ari ubutayu gusa.

Ibi bitekezo byaje guhagarikwa n’ubushakashatsi buheruka bwagaragaje ko umubumbe wa Mars ufite ikiyaga munsi y’ubutaka ahagana ku mpera y’epfo (south pole).

Iby’ikiyaga kiri munsi y’ubutaka kuri Mars biteye bite?   

Ubwo abashakashatsi batangazaga ko babonye ikiyaga munsi y’ubutaka bwa Mars ku mugaragaro, byabaye ikintu gitangaje ndetse benshi birabashimisha. Iki kiyaga cyavumbuwe n’ibyuma by’indeba kure byari ku cyogajuru cy’abanyaburayi cyoherejwe kugenzura uriya mubumbe mu buryo bwihariye ndetse iki cyogajuru kiranawukurikira mu nzira yawo uzenguruka izuba.

Iki kiyaga cyabonywe mu bujyakuzimu bwa kilometelo 1.5 uvuye ku butaka ndetse gifite umurambararo wa Kilometero 200. Gusa ntiharamenyekana neza ubujyakuzimu bwacyo ariko hakekwa ko cyaba gifite metero imwe y’ubujyakuzimu.

Kuva mu 1971 ubwo icyogajuru kiswe Mariner 9 cyageraga ku wundi mubumbe bwa mbere, amafoto cyagarukanye yerekanaga ibisa n’imigezi yakamye byerekanye ko amazi yigeze kuba kuri Mars byanze bikunze.

Mu myaka ya 1990 ibyogajuru bitatu bya NASA n’ikindi kimwe cyoherejwe n’ikigo cy’abanyaburayi gishinzwe iby’ikirere byoherejwe kwiga kuri uriya mubumbe kuva hasi kugera hejuru, bifata amashusho y’imiterere yawo yose yewe binasuzuma ibijyanye n’amabuye ndetse n’imyunyu munsi y’ubutaka bwa Mars.

Bimwe mu byogajuru byabonye imyunyu ikimenyetso cy’uko higeze amazi. Ibindi byaje kubona urubura runini rukubye ikiyaga cya Michigan inshuro ebyiri. Byagaragaye ko kandi haba harigeze kuba amasoko ashyushye azwi nk’amashyuza mu butaka bwaho. Nyuma baza no kubona ibibumbe by’urubura mu misozi yaho.

Mu myaka cumi n’itanu ishize ikigo cy’Abanyamerika gishinzwe iby’ikirere NASA cyohereje imashini yikoresha (robot) yiswe 'Curiosity rover' kiza gucukura ibintu bibonerana byaje kuyenga birabura burundu nyuma y’iminsi ine, bikaba byaratumye abashakashatsi bemeza ko byari ibice by’urubura rwaje gushonga.

Zahabu isukika kuri Mars

Amazi ni ikintu abantu bose b'isi duhuriyeho mu gukoresha, ariko mu by’ukuri afite akamaro kanini karenze ibyo twe dutekeraza. Usibye ibijyanye no kumenya uko umubumbe wagiye uhindagurika uko ibihe byagiye bisimburana, abashakashatsi bizera ko nyuma yo kubona amazi kuri Mars ku buryo bufatika bizaba inzira yo kuvumbura ibindi bintu by’agaciro haba ubu ndetse n’igihe kizaza.

Muri uyu mwaka wa 2020 hari indi mashini imeze nk’imodoka yoherejwe kuri Mars ngo izacukure ubutaka bwaho maze buzanwe ku isi bupimwe mu mazu yabugenewe y’ubushakashatsi (Laboratoire) kugira ngo higwe ibintu byinshi birimo: uburyo umwuka umuntu ahumeka (oxygen) washyirwa hariya hantu, uburyo ibyogajuru byajya bihagarara byoroshye ku butaka bwaho, n’ibindi by’ingenzi byafasha umuntu kuhamara igihe kirekire.

Imashini yikoresha (Robot) iteye nk’imodoka yoherejwe mu bushakashatsi kuri Mars mu 2020

Src: independent.co.uk, NASA

Umwanditsi: Dusabimana Soter-InyaRwanda.com 






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