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Menya byinshi wibaza ku gace ka Hollywood kamamaye mu gutunganyirizwamo Filime z’ibitangaza

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:9/05/2020 9:20
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Hollywood ni umujyi w’isezerano kuri buri cyamamare gikina filime. Aka gace katangiye ari ak'ubuhinzi nabwo buciriritse ariko ubu ni umujyi ufite ibigwi birenze intekerezo za bamwe. Ese wari uzi ko uyu mujyi w’indashyikirwa mu kugira filime zuje ubwiza washinzwe n'abagabo babiri?.



Haba none cyangwa ahashize abantu benshi bakunze kubona urukurikirane rw’amashusho agenda (Moving pictures) haba mu nzu z’imyidagaduro cyangwa ku byuma ngurukanamashusho (Television) biri mu ngo zacu.

Aya mashusho agenda dukunze kwita filime yagiye amara irungu abatari bake ku isi bitewe n’uburyohe runaka ndetse n’inyigisho binyura amaso y’abareba. Uburyo filime zikoze n’ubuhanga buri mu mikinire bituma umubare munini w’abantu ushobora gukunda izakorewe aha abandi bagakunda izakorewe hariya. Noneho, reka turebere kamwe mu duce twamamaye mu gutunganyirizwa mo cinema zajyiye zibica bigacika hano ku isi(Hollywood).

Hollywood hatunganyirizwa filime z'agatangaza

Hollywood ni agace gaherereye muri Los Angeles ho muri Leta ya California imwe muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika. Aka gace gakunze kwitiranywa n’agace gatangaje gakurura abantu cyane cyangwa se agace kagenewe inganda z’imyidagaduro kakaba n’isoko y’amafaranga meshi n’imbaraga ku bagakoramo. 

Nk’umurwa mukuru w’ishoramari mu by’imyidagaduro rero, Hollywood ni ubuturo bw’amashene ya Televiziyo azwi cyane n’inzu zikomeye cyane zitunganya filime ndetse n’amazu y’amamaye mu gufata amajwi y’indirimbo ku buryo buhebuje.

Inkomoko ya Hollywood

Uretse ishusho y’ubwamamare bw’aka gace gafite ubu, Hollywood ifite inkomoko idashamaje: Aha hantu hatangiye ari agace gato k’ubuhinzi nabwo budateye imbere cyane ariko uko iminsi yagiye ishira ibi byaje guhinduka haba umujyi utangaje aho abantu b’ibyamamare (stars) bavukira, aho inzozi zibera impamo kuri bacye bagira amahirwe yo kuhagera.

Mu mwaka wa 1853, amazu mato akozwe mu biti yari atuwemo n’abahinzi baciriritse niyo yari yiganje aho Hollywood iri ubu. 

 Inzu ya mbere y’i Hollywood

Abahinzi bakomeje kugenda bahatura ubutitsa nyuma y’imyaka makumyabiri, gusa hahindutse ahantu h’ubuhinzi noneho butangaje hamenyekana ku izina ry’ikibaya cya Cahuenga.

Umunyapolitike n’umushoramari Harvey H.Wilcox n’umugore we wa kabiri Daeida bakoreye urugendo i Los Angeles bavuye i Topeka ho muri Kansas mu mwaka wa 1883. Iki gihe yaguze ubutaka bungana na Hegitari 150 mu Burengerazuba bwa Hollywood ahita yiyemeza kuhashyira amatungo.

Nyamara ibi bikorwa ntibyamuhiriye ahubwo mu mwaka wa 1887 yahisemo kugirana amasezerano n’ubuyobozi bwa Los Angeles maze ubu butaka yari yahaguze butangira kubakwamo amazu yari agezezweho anateye imbere muri ibyo bihe.Harvey H.Wilcox n’umugore we bakoreye ishoramari bwa mbere i Hollywood

H. J. Whitley umubyeyi wa Hollywood

Uko ibihe byagiye bihita, Hollywood yateye imbere igira ibiro by’ubuyobozi byayo bwite, amasoko, hoteli imwe ndetse n’umuhanda w’ibinyabiziga.

Mu mwaka wa 1902 umunyamabanki n’umushoramari mu mitungo itimukanwa (Real estate) mogul H. J. Whitley uzwi ku izina rya se wa Hollywood (Father of Hollywood) nawe yarahageze azanywe no gushora imari noneho ku buryo buruseho.

Whitley yahafunguye Hollywood hotel ubu isigaye yitwa inzu y’amakinamico yakira ibihembo by’abakinnyi bahiga abandi muri cinema bizwi nka Oscars.

Uyu mushora mari kandi yashinze uduce tw’ubukerarugendo twitegeye amazi magari ari muri ako gace, ahubaka amazu menshi akodeshwa yo guturwamo, ahubaka banki ya mbere ndetse ni we muntu wazanye umuriro w’amashanyarazi bwa mbere muri ako gace. 

Hobart Hohnstone Whitley uzwi nk’umubyeyi wa Hollywood

Hollywood yabaye agace ka Los Angeles ku buryo bwemewe n’amategeko mu mwaka wa 1910. Iki gihe aha hantu ni ho hahise hahinduka Hollywood yamamaye tuzi ubu.

Inkomoko y’izina Hollywood ubwaryo ntizwi neza ariko hari ibikekwa!

Hari amateka avuga ko nyuma y’uko umushoramari Harvey n’umugore we Daeida bahaguze ubutaka bwo kororeraho uyu mugore we yabwise izina ryitiranwa n’umwe mu mijyi yo muri Ohio witwa Hollywood ni uko izina rifata gutyo.

Hari andi mateka avuga ko wa mushoramari wa kabiri wageze muri aka gace H. J. Whitley yaba yarahise izina hafite ubu igihe yari yarahaje mu kwezi kwa buki mu 1886.

Nyuma y’ibi byose ikizwi neza ni uko bariya bashoramari babiri bavuzwe haruguru ari bo bantu b’ingenzi bagize uruhare rwa mbere ndasimburwa mu iterambere n’ubwamamare bwa Hollywood.

Inzu zitunganya cinema muri Hollywood

Filime ya mbere yakorewe muri Hollywood yitwaga The Count of Monte Cristo mu 1908, ariko ikinwa ryayo ryakorewe muri Chicago. Naho filime ya mbere yakorewe yose kuva itangiye kugera irangiye mu gace ka Hollywood yari filime ngufi ikaba yaritwaga In Old California yo ikaba yarakozwe mu 1910.

                      

In old California filime ya mbere yatunganyirijwe i Hollywood

Mu wa 1911 inzu ya mbere itunganya cinema yarashinzwe ku muhanda umwe wari muri ako gace, naho mu 1915 amazu menshi atunganya amashusho yimukiye muri Hollywood agace kari gutera imbere mu buryo budasanzwe, zivuye mu bice by’uburasirazuba (East coast).

Hollywood kabaye agace keza cyane ko gukiniramo cinema kubera umwuka waho mwiza, ikirere cyaho gikeye ndetse n’ubutaka bwaho bugizwe n’udusozi tubereye ijisho ndetse n’ibibaya by'akataraboneka bibereye gukinirwamo sinema.

 Imiterere ya Hollywood yakururiye benshi kuza kuhatunganyiriza cinema zabo

Ikirango cya Hollywood      

Ikirango cya Hollywood kigizwe n’inyuguti nini cyane zikoze amagambo HOLLYWOOD kikaba kiri ahantu hitegeye ndetse gikurura ba mukerarugendo, nubwo atari cyo cyashyiriwe ho. Mu ntangiro cyari urukuta rugizwe n’amatara akoresha amashanyarazi rwifashishwaga mu kwamamaza ahitegeye ku misozi ya Hollywood.

Iki kirango cyashyizwe ho mu 1923 bikozwe n’umwanditsi w’ikinyamakuru Los Angeles Times akaba n’umushoramari Harry Chandler ku giciro cy’amadorari y’America $21,000.

Buri nyuguti yanditseho yagombaga kugira metero imwe y’ubugari na metero imwe n’igice by’uburebure noneho ikomekwa ku migozi inyuranyemo iba ifashe ku nkingi ziteganye zishinze ku musozi. Amatara ibihumbi bine niyo amurikira icyi kirango.

Ikirango cy’amateka kigaragarira buri wese i Hollywood

Iki kirango byari biteganyijwe ko cyagombaga kumara umwaka umwe n’igice kigakurwaho ariko byarahindutse kirahaguma gihinduka ikirangamateka kugeza magingo aya. Mu 1970 iki kirango cyaje kuvugururwa ndetse kiza no kugaragazwa muri zimwe muri filime zakunzwe cyane nka Superman, Mighty Joe Young ndetse na The Day After Tomorrow.

Ibice by’ingenzi byaranze iterambere rihebuje rishingiye ku myidagaduro by’umwihariko cinema i Hollywood

Igice cya mbere 

Iki gice cyafashe intera mu gihe cyo gukura mu buryo buhambaye mu iterambere, ubushakashatsi ndetse no guhinduka mu buryo bugaragarira buri wese mu ruganda rw’imyidagaduro byazaniye icyubahiro mpuzamahanga aka gace ka Hollywood ndetse n’ibyamamare by’aha hantu.

 Zimwe mu nzu zitunganya amashusho zamenyekanye zibarizwa i Hollywood twavuga nka Warner Brothers, RKO, Fox, MGM na Paramount zikaba zizwi ku kabyiniriro ka The Big five. Izindi nzu nto zikurikira izi ni nka Columbia, Universal na United Artists.

Warner Brothers nk'imwe mu nzu zitunganya cinema zamenyekanye cyane i Hollywood

Iki gihe cy’iterambere ry’agahebuzo ryatangijwe n’ibihe bya sinema zidafite amajwi. Sinema zo mu buryo bw’amakinamico nka The Birth of a Nation (1915) ya D.W Griffith ndetse na za byenda gusetsa za Charlie Chaplin harimo nka The Kid mu 1921 zamenyekanye ku isi hose.

 Nyuma abakinnyi b’ibyamamare nka Chaplin, Marx Brothers na Tallulah Bankhead barakunzwe hafi ku isi hose.

Charlie Chaplin umwe mu byamamare byabayeho i Hollywood muri byenda gusetsa ye The kid

Mu gihe filime z’amajwi n’amashusho zatangiranga gutera imbere abatunganyaga amashusho i Hollywood bungutse abakiriya bashya benshi baturukaga mu burengerazuba bw’isi nko mu burayi bazaga kuhakorera amashusho y’indirimbo na filime.

Iki gihe buri muntu wahakandagije ibirenge bye yaramamaye ndetse Hollywood ubwayo nayo yamamara ityo nk’ahantu havomwa ubutunzi ndetse n’igikundiro muri rubanda.

Mu 1930 uruganda rw’imyidagaduro rwa Hollywood rwari rumwe mu zibereye umushoramari wese uzi ibyo akora cyane muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Mu gihe cy’ihungabana ry’ubukungu ry’ibyo bihe (Great depression) abanyamerika benshi bagannye umwuga wo gukina sinema kuko babonaga ariho hasigaye amaramuko gusa, aho buri cyumweru abantu basaga miliyoni 80 buri cyumweru baganaga i Hollywood kujya kubaza niba nabo bakwemererwa kwinjira mu mwuga wa sinema.

 Zimwe muri filime zitazibagirana mu mateka ya Hollywood zakozwe cyane cyane mu myaka ya 1930 twavuga nka Snow White and the Seven Dwarves, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Gone with the Wind n’izindi nyinshi zitandukanye.

Hollywood mu gihe cy’intambara ya kabiri y’isi

Mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi mu binyamakuru byinshi bitandukanye, ku mpapuro z’imbere mu makuru havugwaga gusa amakuru y’intambara aho abantu bifuzaga ikintu cyabaruhura mu mutwe kikabahuza yewe bakanaseka kubera kurambirwa amakuru y’intambara; bityo rero Hollywood yagombaga kubibafashamo uko byagenda kose.

Muri iki gihe k’intambara abakinnyi ba filime zisekeje barimo Bud Abbott, Lou Costello, Bob hope na Jack Benny baracuruje cyane. Ariko n’ubwo izi filime zabaga zisekeje ndetse abazireba bakishima cyane, zifashishijwe cyane n’abanyapolitike mu kwinjiza ibitekerezo by’impindura matwara mu mitwe ya rubanda mu buryo butari gukekwa na buri wese.

Ikindi kandi abari bafite amafaranga menshi i Hollywood basabwe gufasha leta mu gucunga umutekano w’abaturage bari batuye muri kariya gace batanga amafaranga yo kugura imbunda, amasasu, guhemba abacunga umutekano ndetse no kugaburira abari bafite ibibazo by’ibiryo. Bityo rero sinema i Hollywood yagize uruhare rukomeye ku buzima bw’abaturage mu gihe cy’intambara ya kabiri y’isi.

Igice cya kabiri 

Abenshi mu bakunzi ba sinema bafata imyaka ya 1960 na 1970 nk’igihe kirindi terambere ritandukanye ryo hambere muri Hollywood. Iki gihe uburyo bwo mu 1930 bwafatwaga nk’ubushaje iki gihe bwavuyeho haza iterambere rishya aho noneho filime zemerewe kwerekana ibijyanye n’ihohotera cyangwa ubwicanyi hamwe n’ibindi byinshi byari bibujijwe mbere.

Igice cya gatatu 

Mu 1970 na 1980, ikorwa ry’amashusho ry’ifashishijwe mudasobwa noneho ryatangiye gukoreshwa; ibi byatumye hakorwa filime nyinshi njyarugamba (Action), kuko byashobokaga noneho kongera ibikabyo mu byakinwe (Montage) ndetse n’ibindi byinshi bitabaye bigatuma zigurwa amafaranga menshi cyane.

Zimwe muri filime zabiciye bigacika muri ibyo bihe twavugamo nka Jaws n’iyitwa Star Wars zikaba zaragize ba nyirazo abaherwe.

Mu 1990 kurebera sinema mu nzu z’imyidagaduro byaragabanutse cyane bituma I Hollywood bayoboka gushyira amashusho ku bizwi nka VCR(video cassette recorder) cyangwa se cassete hamwe na DVD(digital video disc) kugirango babashe kugurisha ku isi hose.

Mu 2000 iterambere riruseho mu ikoranabuhanga rizwi nka digital ryaravumbuwe maze rituma havumburwa ubundi buryo bwo kugurisha filime kuri murandasi nabyo byongerera amafaranga abashoramari b’I Hollywood.

Nta gushidikanya rero agace ka Hollywood kitezwe ko kazakomeza kuba ku ruhembe rw’imbere mu ikoranabuhanga bitewe n'uko iterambere rihagaragara uyu munsi ryerekana ko abashoramari baho badasinzira ku bwo gushaka gukomeza kwamamara mu ruhando rw’isi.

Bimwe mu bikunze kugirwa ubwiru bibera i Hollywood

Muri rusange uru ruganda rwa sinema, rwaramamaye kubera ibikorwa byiza byarwo byo gukurura abantu b’impande zose z’isi. Ariko nyuma y’ibi hari ibikorwa bitari byiza bihakorerwa bikirengagizwa cyangwa se ntibinamenyekane.

Buri mwaka abantu bifuza kwamamara bashora amafaranga menshi i Hollywood ngo barebe ko inzozi zabo zagerwaho. Iyo bamwe amafaranga amaze kubashirana batangira kwiyahura abandi bakishora mu biyobyabwenge ndetse bamwe bakayoboka gukina filime z’urukozasoni yewe ndetse abandi bakirirwa ku mihanda ku bwo kubura aho baba.

Ikindi kandi n’ubwo bitavugwa inzoga n’ibiyobyabwenge bya base cyane abantu b’ibyamamare i Hollywood akenshi bigaterwa n’amarangamutima yo kwamamara bikabije ndetse n’amafaranga menshi bamwe babonera aha hantu bakiri abana bikabananira kuyacunga uko bikwiye.

Hari bimwe mu byamamare byagiye bihitanwa n’inzoga cyangwa ibiyobyabwenge harimo nka Marilyn Monroe, Judy Garland, William Holden na Heath Ledger.

Hari n’andi mabanga y’i Hollywood ajyanye no gufata ku ngufu abagore. Nko mu mwaka wa 2017 ikinyamakuru The New York Times cyavuze inkuru y’umugabo witwa Harvey Weinstein wamamaye mu gutunganya amafilime akaba yarakekwagaho gukoresha imibonano mpuzabitsina ku gahato bamwe mu bakozi be ndetse na bamwe mu bakinnyi ba filime i Hollywood mu gihe cy’ibinyacumi by’imyaka.

Iki gihe benshi baramureze atabwa muri yombi yirukanwa mu nzu zitunganya amashusho we ubwe yishingiye. Weinstein yashinjwe na benshi abagabo ndetse n’abagore kubahohotera yitwaje ububasha yari afite. Nubwo hari bimwe bimenyekana, ariko i Hollywood habera byinshi ariko bimwe bigapfukiranwa kubera abudahangarwa bwa ba nyiri kubikora.

Harvey Weinstein ubwo yajyanwaga mu rukiko

Src: History.com, britannica.com, amazon.com ...

Umwanditsi: Dusabimana Soter-InyaRwanda.com 






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