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Amateka y’ibihembo ‘The Oscar’ bihabwa abakinnyi ba Filime b'Intoza ndetse b'abazitunganya

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:6/05/2020 12:56
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The Oscars ni ibihembo bihabwa abakinnyi ba za filime ndetse n’abandi bafite aho bahuriye nazo. Ibi bihembo ni yo nkingi y’ifatizo ituma benshi bahora babona filime nziza kandi zuzuyemo ubuhanga bitewe n'uko abazikina bahora bameze nk’abarushanwa. Menya imvo n’imvano y’ibi bihembo.



Ibihembo bya Academic Awards, bizwi cyane nka The Oscars ni ibihembo ngarukamwaka bihabwa abakinnyi n'abatunganya filime. Ibi bihembo bikaba bitangwa n’ishyirahamwe rihuza ama televiziyo n’ibigo bitunganya sinema ryitwa The Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences rizwi nka Academy cyangwa The motion Picture Academy ryashinzwe kuwa 11 Gicurasi 1927 muri Beverly Hills, California muri Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Igitekerezo cyo gushinga iri shyirahamwe cyazanywe n’umugabo witwa Louis B. Mayer umuyobozi w’inzu itunganya sinema ya Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer aho nyuma yaje guhura n’abakinnyi ba filime n’abazitunganya barimo nka: Fred Niblo, Conrad Nagel na Fred Beetson baganira ku gitekerezo cyo gushinga iri shyirahamwe, gusa mu guhura kwabo nta gitekerezo cyo gutanga ibihembo bavuzeho.

Nyuma y'ibyo biganiro, kuwa 11 Mutarama 1927, Mayer yahurije hamwe abantu bagera kuri mirongo itatu na batandatu babarizwa muri uru ruganda rwa sinema muri Ambassador Hoteli mu mugi wa Los Angeles aho yabagejejeho igitekerezo cyo gushinga iri shyirahamwe nyuma y’ibiganiro bagiranye baje kwemeranwa gushinga iri shyirahamwe.

Kuwa 11 Gicurasi ni bwo habaye inama ya mbere y'iri shyirahamwe ibera muri Millennium Biltmore Hotel, aho Douglas Fairbanks yatorewe kuba umuyobozi yungirizwa na Fred Niblo. Nyuma baje gushyiraho itangwa ry'ibi bihembo aho icyari kigenderewe cyane kwari ugutera imbaraga abakinnyi n’abatunganya sinema gukora ibihangano bifite ireme.

Louis B. Mayer umwe mu bashinze “The Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences”

Ibi bihembo ngarukamwaka mpuzamahanga muri sinema bihabwa abakoze ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa muri sinema aho batorwa n’abagize iri shyirahamwe rya The Motion of Pictures Arts and Sciences. Abahabwa ibi bihembo bahembwa ikibumbano gikozwe mu muringa usize zahabu bise Academy Award of Merit, kikaba gikorwa n’uruganda R.S.

Owens Company, buri kibumbano kikaba gipima ibiro bitatu (3kg), na santimetelo mirongo itatu n’ibice bitatu (34.3 cm) z’uburebure, n’agaciro k’amadolari ya Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika Magana inani na mirongo itanu (850$).

Kuwa 15 Gicurasi 1929, muri Hollywood Rooseverlt hotel muri Los Angeles ni bwo hatanzwe bwa mbere ibi bihembo, igikorwa kitabiriwe n’abantu bagera kuri Magana abiri na mirongo irindwi aho itike yo kwinjira yari amadolari atanu (5$) akaba 74$ muri iki gihe turimo.

Kuri uwo munsi hatanze ibihembo bigera kuri cumi na bitanu bihabwa abakinnyi ba filime, abayobozi ba filime (Directors), n’abandi benshi batandukanye babarizwa mu ruganda rwa sinema.

Mu gutangaza abatsindiye ibi bihembo batangazwaga mu bitangazamakuru amezi atatu mbere y'uko ibihembo bitangwa, gusa nyuma mu 1930 byaje guhinduka aho abatsinze batangazwaga mu binyamakuru i saa tanu z’umugoroba mbere y’ijoro ry'itangwa ry’ibyo bihembo.

Mu 1940, abatsinze baje kujya batangazwa mu kinyamakuru cya Los Angeles Times mbere y'uko hatangwa ibihembo, nyuma yaho gato mu 1941 baje kujya batangaza abatsindiye ibihembo mu birori nyirizina aho uwatsinze yatangazwaga basomye izina rye ku rupapuro rwabaga ruri mu ibahasha (Envelope) ifunze neza.

Emil Jannings ni we wabaye umukinnyi wa mbere wahawe iki gihembo abaye umukinnyi mwiza (The Best Actor) muri Filime ebyiri yari yagaragayemo ari zo: The Last Command na The way of All Fresh.

Emil Jannings ukomoka mu Budage wahawe igihembo cya mbere mu 1929

Ni ibihe byiciro bigenderwaho mu gutanga ibihembo?

Nyuma ibi bihembo byakomeje kuba ngaruka mwaka aho hahembwaga abakinnyi n’abandi bagarabaje ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa muri sinema buri mwaka. Bimwe mu byiciro bagenderaho batanga ibihembo harimo:

·         Best picture

·         Lead actor

·         Lead Actress

·         Supporting Actor

·         Supporting Actress

·         Director

·         Animated Feature

·         Animated Short

·         Adapted Screenplay

·         Original Screenplay

·         Cinematography

·         Best Documentary Feature

·         Best Documentary Short Subject

·         Best Live Action Short Film

·         Best international Feature Film n’ibindi byinshi bitandukanye.

Ibirori byo gutanga Ibihembo

Ibirori byo gutanga ibi bihembo biba byitabiriwe n’ibyamamare bitandukanye harimo abakinnyi ba filime, abahanzi n’abandi benshi batandukanye. Ibi birori bitambutswa kuri Televiziyo ya ABC, aho biba bikurikiwe n’umubare utari muke w’abakunzi ba sinema ku isi hose. Iby'uyu myaka wa 2020 ku nshuro ya 92 byabaye muri Gashyantare, bibera muri Dolby Theatre mu mujyi wa Los Angeles.

Mahershala Ali umwe mu batwaye ibihembo muri The Oscars 2020


1917 imwe muri Filime zatwaye Ibihembo muri The Oscars 2020

Akamaro k'ibi bihembo ni akahe?

Ibi bihembo byagize uruhare mu iterambere rya sinema, aho byatumye uruganda rwa Sinema ku isi ruzamuka cyane, abakinnyi ba filime nabo bazamura urwego rwabo mu gukina ari nako binjiza amafaranga menshi.

Ibihembo bya The Oscars byatumye hazamuka ireme rya Filime zagiye zikorwa mu myaka itandukanye, aho buri mwaka filime zikorwa ziba zitandukanye mu ireme n'umwaka wabanje. Abatwara ibi bihembo bibafasha muri byinshi aho amafaranga binjiza mu gukina filime yiyongera.

Src: oscar.go.com, oscars.org, britannica.com

Umwanditsi: Dusabimana Soter-InyaRwanda.com






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