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Amateka ya Malcolm X ufatwa nk’intwali y’abirabura

Yanditswe na: Uwera Ange
Taliki:11/03/2020 6:07
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Malcolm Little uzwi ku izina rya Malcolm X ndetse akagira n’izina yahawe n’idini ya Islam ari ryo el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz yabonye izuba ku itariki ya 19 Gicurasi umwaka mu 1925 avukira ahitwa Nebraska.



Malcolm akiri umwana, iwabo baje kuva Nebraska aho yari yaravukiye bimukira ahitwa Lansing mu mujyi wa Michigan. Ku myaka itandatu gusa ni bwo Malcolm yabuze se ari we Earl Little  aho yari amaze kwitaba Imana azize impanuka y’imodoka.

Nyuma y’urupfu rwa se umuryango wabo wahuye n’ubukene  bukabije bituma nyina Louise Little afata icyemezo cyo kujya ateka ibiryo ku muhanda akabicuruza kugira ngo abana be babone imibereho. Nyuma ni bwo nyina yaje guhagarikwa akekwaho kugira uruhare muri asylum mu mwaka w’i 1939, ibi byatumye Malcolm ndetse n’abavandimwe be bajyanwa kuba mu miryango y’iwabo.

Malcolm yari umuhanga cyane mu ishuri ariko hakaba umwe mu barimu be wamugiriye inama yo kuba umubaji kuruta uko yaba umunyamategeko. Malcolm X utaravugaga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwariho icyo gihe, yaje kuva mu mujyi wa Michigan ajya ahitwa Boston kubana na mushiki we witwa Ella, umwana se yari yarabyaranye n’umugore bashyingiranwe bwa mbere. Aha niho yatangiye kujya akora ibyaha bya hato na hato mu myaka ye y’ubugimbi, aho yaje kujya acuruza ibiyobyabwenge.

Ni nawe wari ukuriye agatsiko k’abajura ahitwa Roxbury na Harlem mu mujyi wa New York. Kubera ubujura yaje gufungwa kuva mu mwaka w’i 1946 kugeza mu w’i 1952. Ibi byaje gutuma ajya mu muryango wa Islam (wahurizaga hamwe  ibikorwa bya Islam ndetse n’ibikorwa by’abirabura ugaharanira n’inyungu zabo).

Mu rwego rwo kwihugura Malcolm X yamaraga amasaha menshi asoma ibitabo byari mu isomero rya gereza yari afungiwemo ndetse akihatira no kumenya ibyari mu nkoranyamagambo (dictionary) byose, yaniyunguye kandi ubumenyi ku bijyanye no gushaka gihamya (facts) aho yagiraga uruhare mu biganiro mpaka.

Kubera amahame umuryango wa Islam yabagamo wagenderagaho byatumye izina rye “Little “, arisimbuza “X” kuko ibi byari nk’umugenzo uhoraho wakorwaga na buri wese wabaga mu muryango wa Islam. Impamvu yabyo yari uko uyu muryango wa Islam wafataga ko izina ry’umuryango umwana yabaga yarahawe ryabaga rifite inkomoko mu bazungu.

Nyuma yo kuva muri gereza, Malcolm X yagize uruhare mu kuyobora umuryango wa Islam yabarizwagamo wari ugeze mu gihe cyawo cyo kwaguka no kuzana impinduka, aho mu mwaka w’i 1952 yahuye na Elijah Muhammad ari we wari ukuriye umuryango w’abirabura bo mu idini ya Islam bahurira Chicago bagira ngo bagure umuryango wabo bubaka imisigiti (Mosques) mu duce tugiye dutandukanye nka: New York, Philadelphia, Boston ndetse n’imwe mu mijyi y’amajyepfo.

Malcom kandi ni we washinze ikinyamakuru cy’umuryango yabarizwagamo ari wo wa Islam. Mu rwego rwo kwagura umuryango yasabye buri muntu wese w’igitsina gabo wabaga muri uwo muryango ko hari umubare w’ibinyamakuru yagombaga kugurisha ku mihanda kugira ngo bazane abantu bashya ndetse banaboneraho gutanga umusanzu wabo nk’abanyamuryango.

Malcolm yaje kuba uhagarariye umusigiti wa Boston ari nawe wawushinze, nyuma aza kuzamurwa mu ntera agirwa umukuru w’umusigiti wa Harlem ari naho hakomeye cyane nyuma y’ikicaro gikuru cy’umuryango wa Islam yabarizwagamo giherereye muri Chicago.

Nyuma yo kubona ubushobozi yari afite, Elijah Muhammad wari ufitiye urugwiro rwinshi Malcolm yamugize uhagarariye umuryango wa Islam ku rwego rw’igihugu. Ubwo akaba yari we muyobozi mukuru ukurikira Muhammad.

Ibyo Malcolm X yagezeho nyuma yo kujya ku buyobozi harimo ko: yatumye abayoboke biyongera mu muryango, aho mbere abanyamuryango basabaga ko byibuze bagera ku bihumbi 500,000 nyuma ubusabe bwabo bwagezweho ndetse umubare uranarenga. Malcolm X ni we wabashije kugaragaza akababaro, umujinya n’akarengane k’abirabura baba muri Amerika mu gihe cy’imyaka 10 (kuva mu 1955-1965) yiswe intwari yo guharanira uburenganzira bwa rubanda, aho yagendaga yigisha ku mihanda ndetse agera no muri za kaminuza zirimo: Kaminuza ya Havard na Kaminuza ya Oxford.

Malcolm X yari umuntu w’umunyabwenge cyane kandi ntiyavaga ku izima ndetse akaba ari  umwe mu bantu bahangayikishije Abanyamerika kuko yabanengaga cyane. Si ibyo gusa kandi kuko yananenze Martin Luther King uburyo yakoreshaga arwanirira uburenganzira bw’abirabura.

Malcolm we yavugaga ko yatanga buri kimwe cyose ngo uburenganzira bw’abirabura bwubahirizwe na ho Martin Luther King we yavugaga ko azakoresha uburyo bw’amahoro. Malcolm kandi yavugaga ko yakoresha inzira zose zishoboka yaba iz’intambara cyangwa se izindi ariko uburenganzira bw’abirabura bukubahirizwa. Malcolm yagiraga inama abirabura yo gukoresha uburyo bwose bushoboka ariko bakirwanaho.

Ibi byahaye abirabura amahirwe n’ubushobozi bwo kugira ijambo ku byemezo bibafatirwa no guharanira uburenganzira bwabo bashize amanga. Uyu mwirabura yatumye habaho umuryango w’abirabura muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika aha hari mu myaka ya za 60 na 70.

Kuva mu idini ya Islam kwa Malcolm X


Mu mwaka w’i 1963 habayeho kutumvikana hagati ya Malcolm na Elijah. Biturutse ko Malcolm yashinjaga Elijah kureberera ibyabaga ku birabura ariko ntashake kugira icyo abikoraho. 

Umubano wabo waje kuba mubi cyane nyuma y’urupfu rw’uwahoze ari Perezida wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika John F. Kennedy ubwo Malcolm yavugaga ko urupfu rwe arubona nk’ingaruka z’ibyo yakoreye abirabura. Aya magambo yababaje cyane Elijah Muhammad bituma atumizaho igitaraganya Malcolm amutegeka guceceka mu gihe kingana n’iminsi 90. Ibi byatumye bacana umubano burundu.

Malcolm X yaje kuva mu muryango w’idini ya Islam muri Werurwe 1964. Nyuma y’ukwezi kumwe gusa yashinze umusigiti (Mosque) we ndetse ajya i Mecca muri uwo mwaka. Ku nshuro ye ya kabiri ubwo yasuraga Afrika ni we watanze igitekerezo cy’uko hashingwa umuryango w’ubumwe bwa Africa (African Union). Mu 1965 yashinze umuryango uhuriza hamwe abirabura baba muri America (Organization of Afro-American Unity).

Iherezo ku buzima bwa Malcolm X

Kwitandukanya n’umuryango w’idini ya Islam byamuviriyemo guhigwa ndetse no kwangwa urunuka aza kwicwa ku itariki ya 21 Gashyantare 1965. Yaje kwicwa ubwo yarimo yigishiriza mu gace kamwe k’umujyi wa New York ari ko Harlem. Bamwe mu bashinjwa urupfu rwe harimo 3 mu bo babanaga mu muryango w’idini ya Islam. 

Ibitekerezo bya Malcolm X ndetse n’Imbwirwaruhame yagiye atanga byagize uruhare mu guhindura imitekerereze y’abazungu ku birabura, binafasha kandi imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bw’abirabura by’umwihariko mu gukwirakwiza ibitekerezo byo kwishyira ukizana basigiwe na Malcolm X.






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