Airtel Rwanda
Kigali

Byinshi utari uzi ku mateka, umuco by’ubwoko bw’aba Maasai

Yanditswe na: Gentillesse Cyuzuzo
Taliki:13/01/2020 12:37
0

Ubwoko bw’aba Maasai haba mu myambaro yabo n’imico yabo, byatumye bamenyekana nk’ikirango cy’Afurila y’Iburasirazuba. Ingabo y’aba Maasai iri no mu ibendera ry’igihugu cya Kenya. Ni ibintu bimenyerewe mu bihugu nka Kenya na Tanzania kubona aba Maasai mu myambaro yabo gakondo, mu mihanda ndetse no mu mijyi ikomeye y'ibyo bihugu.



Umubare w’abaturage b’aba Maasai muri Kenya na Tanzania babarirwa mu bihumbi 900 bivugwa ko ubu bwoko bumaze ku isi imyaka irenga 3000. Bagenda batura mu bice byegereye ama parike. Gusura ibice aba Maasai batuyemo ni ibintu bimenyerewe ku bantu baba basuye ama pariki atandukanye muri ibyo bihugu aba Maasai bakunze guturamo.Aba Maasai bakomoka muri Sudani y'Epfo. Batangiye kwimukira mu bice batuyemo ubungubu by'Amajyepfo ya Kenya ndetse no mu Majyaruguru ya Tanzania mu kinyejana cya 17 no mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 18. Birukanye andi moko yari atuye muri utwo duce abandi basigaye bemera kwihuza na bo (aba Maasai). Igikorwa bakoraga cyane cyari ubworozi bw’inka, gusa aba Maasai mu myaka yo hambere bari bazwi nk’abahigi ndetse n’abarwanyi bakomeye.

Hagati mu ikinyejana cya 19, aba Maasai bari bamaze kwagura ubutaka bari batuyeho batangiye no kugera mu bice by’imijyi bya Kenya na Tanzania. Hagati ya 1883-1902 ni ibihe bitazibagirana mu mateka y’aba Maasai. Mu rurimi rwabo bizwi nka emutai, bishatse kuvuga gutsemba. Bivugwa ko 60% by’aba Massai bahasize ubuzima muri icyo gihe ubwo hariho icyorezo cy’ubushita, ibiza ndetse n’amapfa ubwo amatungo yabo yafatwaga n’indwara z’ibyorezo.

Mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya  20, ubutaka bunini bw’aba Maasai bwagizwe pariki z’igihugu. Guverinoma itangira kwigisha aba Maasai ndetse no kubimura ngo ibavane mu buzima babagamo bwo gutura ku gasozi, icyemezo kitashimishije aba abaturage.

Kugera uyu munsi, hari umubare munini w’aba Maasai banze kwimuka bagakomeza bakiberaho ubuzima bamaze imyaka ibihumbi biberamo.

N’ubwo hari umubare munini ugitura mu gasozi, aba Maasai babishaka babaho ubuzima nk’ubw'abandi baturage basanzwe babamo. Aho ndetse bamwe bize bakaminuza bakavamo abanyamategeko, aba dogiteri ndetse n’abanya polikike nka Edward Sakoine, wabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Tanzania inshuro ebyiri.

Mu muco w’aba Maasai abagabo nibo bayobora, aho haba hari itsinda ry’abayobozi riba rigizwe n’abantu bakuze, aribo baba bashinzwe gukurikirana imibanire hagati y’aba Maasai. Ubucakara no gucirwa ishyanga ntibizwi mu muryango w’aba Maasai, iyo hababye amakimbirane bikemurirwa mu gucibwa icyiru cy’inka.

Aba Maasai bazwiho kugira abarwanyi bakomeye. Batoranya itsinda ry’abarwanyi mu gihe cy’imyaka 15 cyangwa se irenga bagatoranya abantu bari hagati y’imyaka 12-25. Aba batoranyijwe bakora imyitozo ikomeye ariko banagenda bakorerwa imigenzo itandukanye, uw’ingenzi ni uwo gusiramurwa. Uyu muhango ukoreshwa ibikoresho gakondo ndetse nta n’ikinya babateye. Imbaraga zo kunyura muri ubwo buribwe ni kimwe mu bifatwa nk'aho umuntu ahindutse umugabo.

Mu ba Maasai iharika riremewe, iyo umukobwa ashyingiwe, ntabwo aba ashyingiwe ku mugabo we gusa ahubwo ni nk'aho aba ashingiwe no ku bandi basore bangana. Mu muco wabo, iyo haje umushyitsi w’umugabo, nyir’urugo aba agomba kuva mu buriri bwe uwo mushyitsi akaba ari we urarana n’umugore we gusa uyu muco uri kugenda ucika.

Umurimo ukomeye k’umugore w’umu Maasai ni ukubyara, aho abana batangira kuba abashumba kuva bagitangira kumenya kugenda. Ubukire bw’umuryango w’aba Maasai bubarirwa mu rubyaro umuryango ufite ndetse n’inka. Uko ari byinshi niko ufatwa nk’umukire. Kubera umubare munini w’abana bapfa bakivuka, aba Maasai bita umwana ari uko amaze amezi atatu.Shuka, umwambaro w’aba Maasai Bambara biteye. 

Amabara y’umwamabaro umuntu yambara biterwa n’imyaka ndetse n’igitsina. Aba Maasai batobora amatwi mu buryo butangaje aho bakoresha amabuye, ibiti ndetse n’amagufa. Mu muco wabo, abagabo n’abagore bose bemerewe gutobora amatwi yabo kandi gutobora ahantu hanini bifatwa nk’ikimenyetso cy’umunyabwenge ndetse no kubahwa.

Ikindi kimenyesto aba Maasai bajya bishyiraho ni ukwikura amenyo. Amenyo y’amabwene akurwa umwana akiri muto nko kumurinda indwara yo gucibwamo ndetse no kuruka. Amenyo yo hagati yo hasi nayo akurwamo umuntu akiri umwana ngo bijye bimworohera kunywa imiti y’indwara runaka.

Ku bijyanye n’imyidagaduro, aba Maasai bagira uburyo bwabo bwihariye baririmbamo ndetse banabyinamo basimbuka bikundwa na ba mukerarugendo babasura kenshi. Gusa bamwe mu ba Maasai batangiye kujya babika umuziki wabo mu buryo bw’amajwi.








Inyarwanda Art studio
Inyarwanda BACKGROUND