Airtel Rwanda
Kigali

Banki y’isi yaba ari ikigega kigamije iterambere koko?

Yanditswe na: Christian Mukama
Taliki:7/12/2019 12:02
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Kuva Banki y'Isi yatangira imirimo yayo mu mwaka wa 1946 igihugu cya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zayigizeho ijambo rinini. Kuva iyi banki yabaho yateye inkunga imishinga myinshi igamije iterambere ku isi yose. Ese iyi banki ikora ite?



Banki y’Isi ni ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’imari kigamije gutsura iterambere ku isi. Magingo aya iki kigega mpuzamahanga gifite abanyamuryango 189, abo bagize uyu muryango ni bimwe mu bihugu bigize uyu mubumbe. Igitekerezo cyo gutangiza Banki y’Isi cyaje mu mwaka wa 1944 kigamije gufasha ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Uburayi kuzahura ubukungu bwabyo dore ko bwari bwatikijwe n’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi. 

Iki gitekerezo cyo gushyiraho iki kigega cyaturutse mu nama y’ Umuryango Mpuzamahanga yitiriwe Bretton Woods yigaga ku bukungu mu mwaka wa 1944 nuko gishyirwa mu bikorwa mu mwaka wa 1946. Kuva yashingwa iyi banki yagiye yaguka mu mikorere yayo. Ese magingo aya ifite izihe ntego? Ubundi se iyi banki iyobowe ite?

Banki y’Isi ishingwa yari ifite ibibazo yari ije gufasha gukemura cyane cyane kuzahura ubukungu bwa bimwe mu bihugu by’Iburaya nyuma y’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi.  Nyuma yo gukemura ibyari biraje ishinga iyi banki nyuma y’intambara y’isi yakomeje ibikorwa bishya birimo guteza imbere gahunda zigamije kurandura ubukene mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere. Usibye gutera inkunga, kugira inama cyangwa gutanga inguzanyo ku bihugu binyamuryango, iyi banki ifasha n’abikorera ku giti cyabo. 

Ubu, iyi banki ifite imirongo migari igiye itandukanye bitewe n’aho isi igeze. Magingo aya, iyi banki ifite umuhigo wo kugabanya ikigero cy’ubukene bukabije ku isi, abantu batunzwe n’idorari 1.90 $ ntibakomeze kuba 3% by'abatuye isi. Banki y’Isi ifite ibigo bitanu biyishamikiyeho bitsura amajyambere, ibyo biyoborwa ndetse bikanakurikiranwa n’ibihugu binyamuryango.

Ese iyi banki iyobowe ite?


Kuva mu myaka isaga 70 ishize, Banki y’Isi yayobowe n’Abanyamerika. Ubusanzwe iyi banki ifite ibihugu binyamuryango bitanu bifite ijambo rinini kurusha ibindi. Impamvu imwe mu bituma ibi bihugu bya Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’ Amerika, Ubufaransa, Ubuyapani, Ubudage n’Ubwongereza ni uko byo bihorana ababihagarariye mu kanama k’ubutegetsi. 

Kuki iyi banki ifite icyicaro i Washington ubuyobozi bukuru bwayo bwihariwe na Amerika ari yo yikubiye ubutegetsi bw’iyi Banki?

Nyuma y’intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi Abanyamerika bagize uruhare runini kugira ngo iyi banki ibeho. Ubwo yatangizaga imirimo yayo yo kimwe n’Ikigo Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari, Amerika yari ifitemo imigabane myinshi dore ko ari yo munyamuryango watangaga amafaranga menshi dore ko iki gihugu cyo kitari cyashegeshwe n’intambara. 

Kuva mu mwaka wa 1950, 74% by’amafaranga yakoreshwaga muri iyi banki yatangwaga na Amerika kugeza nyuma y’Intambara y’Ubutita. Ukurikije raporo zitandukanye z’iyi banki usanga ko magingo aya umusanzu wa Amerika urutwa n’uw’Uburayi bwose bwifatanyije, ukaba na none ungana n’uw’umuryango wa BRICSS ( Brazil, Russia, India, South Africa, Saudi Arabia). Uyu muryango wa BRICSS utanga na 18%.

 Abantu bose ntibumva kimwe ibikorwa by’iyi banki

Inyandiko zitandukanye zagiye zigaruka kuri zimwe mu ntege nke za Banki y’Isi. Abantu bamwe bashinja ko iyi banki rimwe na rimwe yirengagiza ingaruka z’ibikorwa by’iterambere itera inkunga. Urugero: hagati y’umwaka wa 1978 na 1993 iyi banki  yateye inkunga iyubakwa ry’ingomero ku ruzi rwa Narmada mu Buhinde, nyamara nubwo iki gikorwa cyari kigamije iterambere benshi banenze ko cyatumye bimwe mu byaro byabayeho kuva mu myaka ibihumbi yashyizweho iherezo n’ibi bikorwa (Dams and the World Bank 2003). 

Iyi banki na none yanenzwe gukomeza gutanga inguzanyo ku bihugu bidafite ubushobozi bwo kwishyura cyane cyane ibiri mu nzira y’amajyambere. Ese ibitarakozwe neza mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa by’iyi mishinga ni byo byatuma twirengagiza imishinga yose yatewe inkunga n’iyi banki kuva nyuma y’Intambara y’Isi ya Kabiri?






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