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Ibyo wamenya kuri Alexander w’Ikirangirire n’urugamba rwa Gaugamela

Yanditswe na: Editor
Taliki:23/10/2019 16:14
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Mu mwaka wa 331 mbere y’ivuka rya Kristu ahitwa Gaugamela muri Iraq y’ubu hari hagiye kubera urugamba rw’amateka. Uru rugamba rwahuje ingabo zigera ku bihumbi magana atatu, ruhuza abami bari b'ibihangange icyo gihe.



Darius umwami w’abami w’Abaperesi yari ayoboye uruhande rumwe urundi ruyobowe na Alexander w’imyaka 26, umwami wa Masedoniya. Bimwe mu bikomeza kuranga amateka y’ibihugu habamo intwari zabyo n’intambara, yaba izabyugarije cyangwa byateje. Ku rundi ruhande, intwari zo zisingirizwa ku bw’ibikorwa by’ubuhangange cyangwa icyo zafishije abenegihugu n’isi muri rusange. 

Nk'uko abanyamateka kimwe n’impuguke mu bya gisirikare, berekana ko buri ntambara igira byinshi yahishuye mu mateka y’isi. Mu mateka hari ibitero cyangwa intambara zabayeho zifite byinshi zasize. Urugero nk’urugamba rwa Waterloo, Cajamarca, Hastings, Stalingrad ndetse n’izindi. Ubu turaza kugaruka ku rugamba rwasize byinshi mu mateka, urwo rukaba urwa Gaugamela.

Tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 331 mbere y’ivuka rya Kristu nibwo ingabo ibihumbi zarizigiye gusibanira mu kibaya cyari hafi y’urusisiro rwa Gaugamela, aho kaba ari muri Iraq y’ubu. Uru ni urugamba rwahuje ingabo ibihumbi bigera cyangwa bisaga maganatatu. Uru kandi rwagaragaje ubuhanga n’amayeri ya gisirikare yaje kujya akoreshwa mu gisirikare muri iki gihe cyacu.

Dusubiye inyuma gato mu mwaka wa 336 mbere y’ivuka rya Kristu, nyuma y’itanga rya Philippe II Umwami wa Macedonia akaba na se wa Alexander, uyu muhungu we yahise yima ingoma. Uyu Philippe II mbere y’itanga rye yarafite umugambi wo kwigarurira amahanga. Umuhungu we amaze kwima ingoma na we yahisemo kusa ikivi cya se. Muri uwo mwaka wa 336 mbere y’ivuka rya Kristu ni bwo Alexander n’ingabo ze bagannye iya Asia bajya kwigarurira ubwami bw’abami bw’abaperesi.

Urugendo rwa Alexander muri Asia


Alexander n’ingabo ze nyuma yo kwerekeza muri Asia, umugambi ari umwe wo kwigarurira ubwami bw’abami bw’ Abaperesi, yagiye yigarurira imigi myinshi cyane. Uyu wari umaze kwigarurira imitima y’abasirikare be na bene wabo kuko nta nsinzwi yigeze no mu ntangiro z’urugamba rwo kwigarurira Ubuperesi ni uko byagenze. Imijyi yaMiletus, Mylasa, Halicarnassus n’indi myinshi yaje kugwa mu biganza bya Alexander. 

Nyuma yo kuva Halicarnus Alexander yerekeje ahitwaga Gordium, ahabaga ipfundo risobetse mu migozi ab’icyo gihe bavugaga ko rifite ubuhanuzi ribitse. Iri pfundo bavugaga ko uwashobora kurisobanura azigarurira amahanga yose ya Asia. Bivugwa ko yananiwe kurifunguza intoki, nyamara kubera inyota yari afite yo kuzigarurira ubwami bw’Abaperesi byarangiye arisobanuje inkota.

Nyuma yo kwigarurira imigi yavuzwe haruguru, Alexander yakomeje urugendo. Icyari cyihishe inyuma y’iki gitekerezo cyo kwigarurira Asia benshi, usibye ko ari ko kuri babonye ko kwari ugushaka ubuhangange. Ubwami bw’abami bw’Abaperesi bwavaga mu bice bya Ethiopia y’ubu bukagera muri Afghanistan. Ni uwuhe mwami, muri icyo gihe warikwivutsa amahirwe yo kwigarurira ibi bice afite amaboko?

Mu mwaka wa 333 mbere y’ivuka rya Kristu Alexander n’ingabo ze bigaruriye umujyi wa Issus ubu ni mu gihugu cya Turkey. Uru rugamba rwasebeje umwami w’Abaperesi Darius wa III kuko yasize umugore na nyina umubyara arahunga. Mu myaka yakurikiye nko muri 332 Alexander yagiye yigarurira ahandi hakomeye nka Tyres na Sidon havugwa no muri Bibiliya n’ahandi. 

Mu bintu uyu mugabo yagiye asiga bimwibukirwaho usibye ubutwari bwe ku rugamba harimo n’imigi yagiye ashinga. Mu mujyi yashinze twavuga nk’uwa mwitiriwe wa Alexandria mu Misiri. Nyuma yuko umwami w’abami Darius aboneye ko insinzwi ikomanga mu bice byose, hashatse gushyikirana na Alexander ariko aramunanira.

Gushyikirana Alexander amaze kujya abitera utwatsi, Darius nawe amaze gutakaza ibice by’ingoma ye, ntakindi cyari gisigaye kitari kurwana kugeza ku iherezo. Darius yakoranyije ingabo ze zose kuva mu mahanga yose yari agize ubwami bw’abami bwe zigera ku bihumbi 250 zagombaga kumutsindira umwanzi warimwugarije. Alexander we yari afite abasirikare ibihumbi 45 byagomba gukomeza urugamba.

Ku itariki ya 1 Ukwakira 331 mbere y’ivuka rya Kristu habaye urugamba rutazibagirana mu mateka y’intambara. Kuri iyp tariki yavuzwe nib wo ingabo ibihumbi bisaga 300 zassakiraniye mu kibaya cya Gaugamela. Buri wese iyo acyumva ibi yibaza uko umurambararo izi ngabo zakwiyeho uko wanganaga, abagereranya bavuga ko byari ink’ibirometero 15. Ku ngabo zari zifite ibikoresho bijya kuba bimwe zarizigiye gusakirana, ntawashidikanya kuvuga ko ubu bwari ubwiyahuzi kuri Alexander n’ingabo ze. 

Koroneri Lance Betros, umwarimu n’impuguke mu mateka ya gisirikare, mu cyegeranyo cyakozwe kuri urugamba yatangaje ko insinzi ku barwanaga itagombaga gushingira ku mubare ahubwo ko yagombaga gushingira ku buhanga n’ubunararibonye. Julia Dewey Rupkalvis yatangaje ko ingabo za Darius zarizifite amahirwe menshi yo kwegukana intsinzi kuko bavaga mu matware atandukanye bakagira n’ubwoko bw’intwaro butandukanye. 

Nyamara yerekana ko kuba baravugaga indimi zitandukanye n’umuco ukaba uko byababereye inzitizi. Ubuhanga bw’Alexander ntibwatinze kugaragara kuko ni we washoboye kwegukana intsinzi atsinda ingabo ibihummbi. Amayeri ya gisirikare n’ubuhanga bw’ Alexander (wabaye umunyeshuri wa Aristotle wabaye ikirangirire muri firosofiya no mu biga politiki) bwaje kumugeza ku nzozi ze. 

Hari bumwe mu buryo yakoresheje atsinda uru rugamba bugikoreshwa magingo aya mu gisirikare. Nubwo Darius yatsindiwe muri uru rugamba, ntiyishwe na Alexander cyangwa umwe mu ngabo ze ahubwo nyuma yo guhunga yaje kwicwa n’ingabo yahunganye na zo. Urugendo rwa Alexander ntirwahagarariye aho kuko yaje no kuzagera mu Buhinde.

Inyandiko zifashishijwe: Alexander of Macedonia, San Jose State University, The Battle of Issus.Livius.org, The Siege of Tyre (332 BCE).Livius.org, Alexander the Great.Livius.org, Alexander the Great of Macedon Biography.Historyofmacedonia.org, Alexander the Great na Ancient History Encyclopedia

Umwanditsi: Christian Mukama-InyaRwanda.com








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