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Menya amateka n’impindura matwara y'amafaranga kuva ku kugurana inka n’igitebo cy'amasaka kugera kuri Bitcoin

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:27/09/2019 10:15
2

Umunsi ku wundi amafaranga agenda ahindura isura ndetse n’uburyo tuyakoresha byatangiye haguranwa igicuruzwa ku kindi none tugeze aho dusigaye dukoresha imibare ibitse ahantu tutazi tukabyizera bikadufasha mu kugura ndetse no kugurisha. Waba uzi inkomoko y’amafaranga ndetse n’impindura matwara yayo? Byose urabisanga muri iyi nkuru.



Amafaranga benshi twemeza ko ari umuyobozi w’isi yose kuko uyafite hafi y'ibyo atecyereje gukora hano kw’isi biraba usibye kugurira urupfu ngo ntiruzamutware, abemera Mana bavuga ko amafranga ariyo yahitanye umwana w’Imana. Muri rusange amafaranga ni nk'izingiro cyangwa ifatizo rikoreshwa mu kugura ndetse no kugurisha. Urufito cyangwa imali ni inzira imwe rukumbi benshi bemeze ko ishobora kuba ishoboza abantu kujya mu ijuru dore ko nk'uko amateka abitubwira mu gihe cya cyera umuntu yatangaga amafaranga igihe umuntu we yabaga yapfuye hari imyemerere yemeza ko ari ukugura ibyaha kugira ngo azajye mu ijuru. 

Ibi nubu hari amatorero cyangwa insengero zikibigenderaho kuko benshi bemera ko umutunzi cyangwa utanga ibyacumi n’amaturo ariwe uzakirwa bwa mbere mu ijuru. Amafaranga uko imyaka itambuka niko agenda ahindura isura ndetse n’inzira akoreshwamo gusa nk'uko tubikesha urubuga rwa telegraph.co.uk batubwira ko imyaka igera ku 5000 ishize ubucuruzi butangiye kandi ko igera kuri 2600 ariyo ishize ikoreshwa ry'amafaranga ritangiye.

Ese waba warigeze utekerezabko mu minsi yashize umuntu yashoboraga kuba afite ikimasa cy’umushishe akajya ku isoko akaba yataha yikoreye igitebo cy'amasaka ? Nonese wigeze utekerezavko umuntu yashobora kujya ku isoko afite ibuye mu mufuka agataha ayoboye ishyo ry’inka?. Nonese niba uyu munsi ujya ku isoko nta mafaranga ufite ariko ukaba ubitse ikarita mu mufuka w’umwenda ukabasha kugura ibicuruzwa byakuzura ikamyo, nonese waba utecyereza ko nyuma y’iri terambere hazaza irindi? Ese rizaba rimeze gute? Reka turebere hamwe impinduramatwara y’ikoreshwa ry'amafaranga.

Ubundi umuntu yatangiye ubuzima bwe aba mu ishyamba atunzwe no guhiga akarya inyama ndetse akanyuzamo akarya n’imbuto zo mu ishyamba, Uko ubuzima bwagiye butera imbere umuntu yaje kunguka ubwenge bwo gutangira korora zimwe mu nyamaswa. Yabaje kujya ahinga ndetse atangira no kujya ahinga n'ibyo kurya ndetse n’ibyatsi byo kugaburira ya matungo. Nyuma umuntu yaje kubona kuzajya akoresha ibyo yakoze gusa bidagije niko gutangira bakajya bagurana ibyo umwe adafite cyangwa atahinze akajya kugura n'undi ufite ibitandukanye n'ibyo yejeje niko gutangira ubucuruzi gusa bwatangiye nta mafaranga nk'aya tuzi uyu munsi akoreshwa.

Ubwoko bw’amafaranga bwagiye bukoreshwa nk’ishingiro ry’ubucuruzi bwabayeho mu mateka ya muntu

1. Igurana ry’igicuruzwa ku kindi (Barter trade)Iki gihe abantu bakoreshaga uburyo bwo kugurana igicuruzwa ku kindi, ni ukuvuga washoboraga kuba ufite intama ariko ukeneye ihene, noneho ukajya ku isoko ujyanye intama noneho wagerayo ukahasanga undi muntu waje afite ihene nawe aje gushaka intama. Aha icyakorwa nta kumvikana cyangwa guciririkanya mwaraguranaga nta kindi kintu kigendeweho. Igitangaje cyo kuri ubu bucuruzi cyangwa uburyo bwakoreshwaga mu kugurana ni uko wasangaga nk'umuntu aje ku isoko afite inka ariko akaza ashaka nk’ibishyimbo, icyakorwaga yarebaga wa muntu waje yikoreye igitebo cy’ibishyimbo akamwinginya ngo namuguranire. 

Benshi mu bantu b'iyi minsi ubu bshise batangira kwibaza ngo iyo tuba twarabayeho iki gihe ukaba wejeje ibijumba ukabiha umuntu akaguha inka gusa iyo aba ari wowe byabayeho ukajya mu soko uyoboye inka y’umushishe ugataha wikoreye igitebo cy’ingano wari kuzava muri ubu buzima wagera mu ijuru ukarwanirayo n'uwo mwaguranye. Ubu bucuruzi mu cyongereza ni bwo bita Barter trade cyangwa bakabuha akabyiniriro k'igihe cyabayeho nta mafaranga ”Commodities money”, Nk'uko urubuga investopedia.com rubitubwira iki gihe cyabayeho mu myaka 3000 ishize ni ukuvuga byabayeho mbere y'ivuka rya Yezu Kirisitu nubwo hari n'ibihugu na nyuma yaho byakomeje kujya bikoresha iyi nzira.

2. Amabuye y'agaciro akoreshwa nk'amafaranga “Metallic Money” (Ubucuruzi bw’ibyuma) ntabwo ari ubucuruzi bw’ibyuma nk'uko benshi muhise mubitecyereza ahubwo ni ubucuruzi bw’ibirabagirana. Nituvuga ibirabagirana ntugire ngo ni zahabu gusa. Metallic money tuvuga aha ni igihe icyo twita amafaranga kuri uyu munsi wanone cyari gihagarariwe n'amabuye y'agaciro, mu myaka yo hambere nyuma yo kugurana igicuruzwa ku kindi hageze aho haza ubucuruzi bwo kugurana ibicuruzwa n'amabuye y'agaciro. Aha amabuye y'agaciro yakoreshwaga nk'inkingi y’ubucuruzi.

Iki gihe umuntu wamuhaga igicuruzwa akaguha ibuye ukaritahana ukagenda ufite icyizere cy’uko nawe umunsi umwe uzariha umuntu akaguha igicuruzwa runaka. Nk'uko tubikesha igitabo “The Wild Girl of Pride & Prejudice” kivuga Umwami wabayeho mu mwaka wa 610 mbere y'ivuka rya Yezu Kirisitu batubwira ko Alyattes wayoboraga ubwami bwa Lydia, ubu aka gace kari mu Burengerazuba bwa Turkey ni we watangije ubu bucuruzi bushingiye ku mabuye y’agaciro.

Amabuye y'agaciro yakoreshwaga cyane hari higanjemo Gold, Silver na Copper. Uko byakorwaga icyo gihe wajyaga ku isoko witwaje igicuruzwa urugero nk’inka noneho wagerayo umuntu akaguha ibuye ry’agaciro ukayimuha. Gusa byaterwaga n’uburyo ringana. Ni ukuvuga washoboraga kujya ku isoko ukahasanga abantu bafite amabuye y'agaciro kenshi. Wagendaga ureba ufite ibuye rinini mukaba ari we mwumvikana. Iyo byarangiraga wararitahanaga wagera mu rugo ukaribika wazumva nawe ukeneye ikintu, ukarisubiza ku isoko ukariha umuntu nawe akaguha icyo ushaka.

Gusa inzobere nyinshi mu bijyanye n’iterambere ry’ifaranga ndetse n’ubukungu, ibi ni byo zihurizaho zivuga ko aha ari naho hatangiye kujya hakoreshwa utubuye twari duto duconze neza binavugwa ko ari two ntangiriro y’ibiceri tuzi uyu munsi wanone. Gusa mbere ntabwo byari byagahabwa agaciro nko kuri uyu munsi kandi ikindi ibiceri by’icyo gihe cyo hambere byabaga ari amabuye y'agaciro naho iby'uyu munsi byo biba bisize umushongi w'amabuye y'agaciro imbere harimo amabuye ahendutse cyane ndetse nureba neza uzabona bimwe na bimwe byagiye bikoboka umushongi warashizeho.

Icyo gihe ni bwo igisa n’ubucuruzi bw’umwuga cyasaga nigitangiye, icyakora  ibyo tuzi nk’amafaranga y’uyu munsi ndavuga inote ndetse n'ibiceri byari bitaraza. Icyari ku isonga cyari amabuye y'agaciro ndetse aha ni naho hatangiye icuruzwa ryambukaga imigabane akaba ari ubucuruzi bwari burangajwe imbere n'amafarashi ndetse n’ingamiya. Abanyamateka batubwira ko kubera abakoroni bari bazi agaciro k'aya mabuye ndetse bakabasha kureba umumaro wayo mu gihe kinini barayafashe barayabika ndetse ku ngano nini cyane kuko babonaga ko hari igihe azagera akabyazwa umusaruro. Ubu ugeze mu bwami bw'Abaroma wahasanga amabuye menshi akihabitse aho amenshi muri yo yavuye muri Afrika mu gihe cy'ubukoroni kuko bayatwariraga ubuntu.

3. Ikoreshwa ry'amafaranga ya Banki (Paper money)Inkundura y’ibiceri bya zahabu n’uburyo byabaga biremereye byateje ikibazo ni ko gutekereza ko ikintu cyabisimbura bikarushaho kuba byiza. Ni ko gutekereza inote zaje zitwa Paper money. Aha nushishoza neza inote ni ibipapuro ndetse ni yo ushabuye irashabuka ni naho havuye izina ”Paper money”. Nk'uko tubikesha urubuga investopedia.com na economist.com batubwira ko Paper money yatangiye gukoreshwa bwa mbere izanywe n'Abashinwa ahagana mu kinyejana cya 7th nyuma y'ivuka rya Yezu Kirisitu (7th century A.D). Abahanga mu bijyanye na design benshi bajya banagerageza kwikorera inote zabo mu rwego rwo gushaka kuba abaherwe banyuze mu nzira z'ubusamo, gusa benshi ntabwo bikunze kubahira.

Nujya kugura ikintu muri iyi minsi uzabona hari abantu batazakugirira icyizere ujye kubona afashe amafaranga (ibi bipapuro bifite agaciro gasumba aka muntu wabyikoreye) arimo kuyitegereza cyane areba ko ari iy'ukuri yemewe n'amategeko ndetse mu bigo bishinzwe imali nka za Banki n'ahandi baba bafite imashini zibicunga aho banyuzamo izi note. Izi note cyangwa Paper money ubu ni cyo twakwita umuyobozi w’isi. Zituma benshi bahasiga ubuzima abandi bakarara amajoro bakora cyane ngo ukwezi nigushira abo bakorera bazabibahe (ibyo bipapuro/amafaranga) nabo babikoreshe bagura ibyo bakeneye.

Mu rurimi rw'icyogereza babyita Medium of exchange (izingiro ry’igurana). Ese ni nde ushinzwe kugenzura ikwirakwira ndetse no gusimbuza amafaranga yangiritse ? Ibi ababikora ni Central Bank y’igihugu cyangwa icyo twakwita izingiro rya za Banki z'igihugu runaka. Hano mu Rwanda nituga BNR cyangwa Banki Nkuru y'u Rwanda urabyumva vuba. Iyi ni yo igenga ikoreshwa ry'amafaranga ndetse na Banki zose ziba mu gihugu.

4. Credit money

Kubera kutizera umutekano ndetse n'amanyanga ya hato na hato ku bijyanye n'amafaranga, benshi ubu bari gukoresha icyo twakwita Credit cyangwa cheque. Iki ni igihe cyo kubika amafaranga mu buryo bwa cheque cyangwa kubitsa amafaranga muri za banki bakaba ari bo bajya bayakugenera cyangwa bayakurindira umutekano, wowe wajya kuyabikuza bakakwereka imibare yegeranye n'amazina yawe. Iki ni cyo cyiciro cya 4 cy'iterambere ry’ifaranga. Ubu umuntu iyo aguze cyangwa agiranye amasezerano n'umuntu asigaye ahita avuga ati 'ndaguha cheque'. 

Iyi cheque iba yanditseho imibare y'amafaranga baguhaye akanasinyaho, wowe ukajya kuri banki aho yabikije ya mafaranga cyangwa aho bayacunga washaka bakayakura ku mazina ye bakayaguha cyangwa bakayashyira ku yawe. Ikiba kibaye ni ubuguzi ndetse no kugurisha biba bikozwe hagati y'abantu babiri kandi mu buryo bwizewe nubwo bijya bibaho ko hari abantu bihimbira cheque zitazigamiye, gusa ibi ni icyaha gihanwa n'amategeko. Hari n'abandi bajya binjira muri system z'ama banki bakajya ku mazina yabo bakiha amafaranga nyuma bakazajya kuyafata nubwo bidakunze kubahira. Iki cyiciro ni cyo kibamo imigabane igurwa muri za banki ndetse n'ibyo bita Bond.

5. Plastic moneyIcyiciro cya 5 ni icyiciro cyitwa Plastic money. Muri iki cyiciro kitwa icy'abasirimu kirangajwe imbere n’ubucuruzi bwa E-commerce na Service economy byose bikubiye muri Digital economy cyangwa ubucuruzi bw’ikoranabuhanga rigezweho. Aha murandasi ni yo pfundo ry'iri koreshwa ry'amafaranga rigezweho. Iki cyiciro kirimo ubucuruzi bukoresha ama Credit card. Aha nituvuga Credit card benshi muhite mwumva ibyuma bya ATM (Automated Teller Machine) cyangwa ubundi buryo bwose bukoreshwa tugura nta muntu n'umwe ufashe amafaranga mu ntoki. Ubu bucuruzi buyobowe n’ibigo by’itumanaho ndetse n'ibigo by’ishoramali. Aha ni ho dusanga icyiciro cya Mobile payment ibizwi hano mu Rwanda ni nka Mobile money, Tigo cash na Airtel money.

6. Bitcoin

Image result for images of bitcoin

Iki cyiciro nubwo benshi bataramenya imikorere yacyo ubu ni cyo gisa nk'ikiyoboye ikoreshwa ry'amafaranga riganje muri iyi minsi. Iyi nzira yatangiye gukoreshwa bwa mbere n'abanyamerika, gusa magingo aya hafi y’ibihugu biri kuri uyu mubumbe dutuye biri gukoresha aya mafaranga. Bitcoin kugeza ubu nta muntu uzwi wayizanye cyangwa ngo hamenyekane itsinda ry'abantu runaka, gusa ikizwi ni uko ibi iyo biyoberanye bahita bavuga ngo yazanzwe n'abantu cyangwa umuntu ukunzwe guhabwa izina rya “Satoshi Nakamoto”. 

Iri faranga ryashyizwe ku mugaragaro ahagana muri 2008, gusa ubu rimaze gufata umuvuduko mu kwigarurira benshi kuko benshi bamaze kuba aba miliyarideri bitewe n'iri faranga. Iri faranga rifite n’ubundi bucuruzi burikomokaho buzwi nka “Cryptocurrency wallet” ndetse na hano mu Rwanda bwarahaje nubwo bahise babufunga. Bumwe muri ubu bucuruzi bwamamaye mu Rwanda ni Super market na Alliance Global. Mu mikorere yabwo ni amafaranga azenguruka ku mazina y'abantu hakoreshwejwe murandasi nta bank iyagenda. Iyi ikaba n'impamvu nyamukuru ituma ibihugu byinshi byanga ubu bucuruzi kuko baba bacyeka ko byatuma ifaranga ryabyo ryata agaciro kubera aya mafaranga aba yinjira banki itabizi. Ubu bucuruzi bwa Bitcoin tuzabugarukaho birambuye mu nkuru itaha.

Impindura matwara y’ikoreshwa ry'amafaranga iri kwihuta ndetse ku muvuduko mwinshi, gusa ababimenya mbere cyangwa abamenya impinduka ryayo bibafasha kwiteza imbere. Ubu ikiraje ishinga isi ni ubucuruzi bw'ifaranga riri kuri murandasi rifite ifatizo ku bucuruzi bwa “E-COMMERCE”.

Sources: moneyunder30.com, historynewsnetwork.org na telegraph.co.uk

Books: THE MONEY REVOLUTION by John Preston







IBITECYEREZO

  • Ngirimana Artdeje2 weeks ago
    Utugererayo rwose kandi courage kubintu by' ubwenge. Komeza uduhugure @Eric_Misigaro
  • Eric Misigaro 2 weeks ago
    Urakoze cyane muvandimwe Ngirimana Artdeje Imana iguhe umugisha!


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