Inyarwanda art Studio
Kigali

Menya 'Hacking', uko ikorwa, ubwoko bw’ibitero byayo bigabwa ku bantu n’uburyo wabyirinda

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:2/09/2019 7:26
1

Ubujura bukorerwa kuri murandasi ni ikibazo cyugarije isi muri iyi minsi ndetse benshi bahomba byinshi kandi by'igenzi. Muri iyi nkuru tugiye kurebera hamwe uko abakora ubujuru bwo kwiba amakuru cyangwa amafaranga kuri murandasi babikora n'uko wabyirinda.



Hacking ni ijambo risonanuye kugera ku makuru cyangwa gufata amakuru ari kuri mudasobwa cyangwa kuri telefone cyangwa ubundi buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose wakoreshwa ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa ugashyikira cyangwa ukarinda amakuru cyangwa ukaba wayatwara utabifitiye uburenganzira. 

Hacking ni ijambo akenshi rikunzwe kugaruka mu majwi y’abantu umunsi ku wundi akenshi mu bihugu byateye imbere bikunze gushinjanya kwibana amabanga akenshi agize aho ahuriye na politike. 

Urugero rwa hafi ni aho Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zashyize mu majwi igihugu cy'u Burusiya ku gihacking bakayobya amajwi mu matora y'umukuru w'igihugu bigatuma Donald Trump atorwa kandi ngo atari yatowe ku rwego rungana n'urwo uwo bari bahanganye yari yatoweho.

Ese Hacking ni icyaha?

Iyo bavuze Hacking umuntu w'inzobere kuri mudasobwa cyangwa undi wese ufite aho ahuriye n’ikoranabuhanga iryo ari ryo ryose ahita yumva icyo ari cyo, gusa abatagize aho bahuriye n'iri jambo bahita bumva kwiba amabanga cyangwa ikindi kintu icyo ari cyo cyose binyuze mu gukoresha ubuhanga bwa mudasobwa. 

Hacking itandukanye n’ibyaha bikorerwa kuri murandasi bizwi nka Cybercrime n'ubwo hari aho bihuriye ndetse cyane gusa abantu akenshi bumva uruhande rubi ikoreshwamo gusa hari n’abayikoresha mu kugira ibyo bakiza. Urugero ni nk'uko wajya uvuga ngo umuntu wese uvura akoresheje imiti gakondo wese ni umurozi nyamara atari byo. No ku bahachers ni ko bimeze kuko hari abinjira mu mabanga runaka ariko babifitiye uburenganzira.

Cybercrime ni ubusambo cyangwa icyaha gikozwe hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga rya telefone cyangwa mudasobwa akenshi bigakorwa hifashishijwe murandasi. Cybercrime twatanga ingero zitandukanye zirimo nka Computer fraud, Identity Theft, ATM Fraud na Spam.

A. ESE HACKING IKORWA NA NDE AYIKORA GUTE?Hacking ni igikorwa gikorwa n’inzobere mu ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa aho akora ibishoboka byose akabasha kwinjira mu mikorere ya mudasobwa, akagera ahantu ya makuru ashaka kurinda cyangwa gukoresha ibyashaka abitse. Ashobora kuba abifitiye uburenganzira cyangwa atabufite. Akenshi aba hackers baba bafite umuntu bakorera cyangwa ikigo runaka cyangwa bashaka kuyakoresha mu nyungu zabo bwite.

Aha tutagiye kure ushobora kuba ufite amabanga kuri mudasobwa cyangwa ari kuri Email ukoresha noneho iyo ibaruwa wa mu hacker ashaka iri kuri mudasobwa yawe, aha akora ibishoboka byose akabasha kwinjira muri system ya mudasobwa yawe. Kugira ngo ayigereho bica mu nzira nyinshi, gusa inkingi ya mwamba yifashisha ni indimi za mudasobwa zimufasha kubaka system ya mudasobwa imufasha kugera kuri ya mabanga yawe.

Ni kenshi na hano mu Rwanda twagiye twumva abantu benshi ngo babibye inkuta zabo nkoranyambaga urugero ni nk'umuntu wibwa Instragram cyangwa Youtube channel, ibi birashoboka cyane bikaba akarusho kuri zino murandasi ziba ari iz'ubuntu cyangwa zikoreshwa na bose. 

Aha umu hacker akora system akayiha amabwiriza y'ibyo igomba kujya ifata noneho we akaguha link cyangwa umuyoboro w'ururimi rwa mudasobwa byarangira agakoresha amareshya mugeni y'utugambo tukuryoshya ryoshya noneho wowe ugahita uzikurikira noneho bikamuha ububasha bwo kwinjira muri system ya mudasobwa yawe.

Urugero rwa hafi ni nka murandasi yo muri gare aha imodoka ziparika umenye ko buriya hari ahantu hareberwa abantu baba bari gukoresha iriya murandasi ndetse n'ubwoko bw'ibikoresho baba bari gukoresha watangara. Ntabwo bitangaje usibye n'ibyo, bashobora no kumenya ibyo ureba iyo babishatse. 

Kuko urugero uzasanga nka hamwe mu bigo by'amashuli uzasanga kubera gushaka kudakoresha murandasi nyinshi barafashe bagashyiraho ko nta muntu wemerewe gukoresha urubuga rwa Youtube cyangwa kureba andi mashusho ayo ariyo yose. Ibi icyo bisobanuye ni uko uba arimo gukora ibi birashoboka ko yanakora n'ibirenze ibyo utekereza.

B. Ese izi nzobere hari aho zibyiga?

Akenshi inzobere nyinshi zivuga ko Hacking nta shuli riyigisha gusa akenshi ababikora baba babyiyigishije biturutse mu gukunda gukinisha cyagwa kugira amatsiko yo kumenya imikorere y’ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa ariko bakaba basanzwe bafite ubumenyi kuri mudasobwa ndetse n'indimi zayo. Ndetse bagakunda gukinisha system za mudasobwa bityo bikabaha ubushobozi bwo kumenya byinshi mu byerekeye mudasobwa.

Mu mateka ya Hacking umuntu wakoze agatangaza karenze ak'abandi ni umugabo w’umunyakanada “Michael Calse” ku bw'igikorwa yakoze ahagana muri 2000 ubwo yahombyaga ibigo bikomeye birimo Microsft, Dell,Yahoo Inc., eBay Inc, Amazon.com Inc. na CNN ndetse n’ibindi bigo byinshi bitandukanye. Uyu mugabo wamamaye nka Mafia Boy yakoze agatangaza ku myaka 15 y'amavuko aho yafunze ibi bigo bikomeye mu gihe kingana n'amasaha agera kuri abiri yose. 

Mafia Boy ni we mu mateka wakurikiranwe n’ibigo bikomeye akiri muto. Nyuma yo gukiranwa n’ibigo by’ubutasi by’abanyamerika akaza guhabwa igihano nubwo kitari gikomeye bingana n’igikorwa yari yakoze gusa batangaza ko impamvu atahanwe cyane ntabwo ari uko atari akuze cyane ahubwo ngo ni uko yabikoze atagamije kwiba cyangwa kugira ikindi gikorwa gihungabanya umutekano wa muntu agambiriye kuko icyo yari agamije kwari ukureba urwego agezeho mu bumenyi bwa mudasobwa.

Michael Calse"Mafia Boy"

Kevin Mitnick

Kevin Mitnick ni umunyamerika wamamaye ahagana mu 1982 ubwo yinjiraga (hacking) mu bubiko bw'ibigo nka North American Defense Command (NORAD). Iki gitero yagabye kuri iki kigo cyatanze igitecyerezo cya film yitwa ”War games”. Mu 1988 yagabye igitero ku kigo cya Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) aho yakoze kopi y'ama softwares yose bari bafite bagurishaga ku bakiriya babo, gusa hari n’ibindi bigo bitandukanye yagiye yinjirira nk'ikitwa Pacific bell.

C. Ubwoko bw'aba Hackers n'uburyo bakoramo


1. Ethical Hacker (White hat)

Uyu ni umuhaka ujya muri system abifiye uburenganzira agakora ibintu byose bidakoze neza mu rwego rwo kurinda umuntu waza kwiba amakuru muri iyi system itari imeze neza yari ifite. Ubu bwoko bw'aba ba hackers baba ari inzobere zikorana na Leta cyangwa ibigo bikomeye mu kubarindira amabanga.

2. Cracker (Black hat)

Black hat ni umuhaka winjira muri system runaka nta burenganzira abifiye agakora ibyo ashaka harimo nko kuba yakwiba amakuru cyangwa amafaranga ndetse n’ibindi yacyenera muri iyi system yinjiyemo. Ashobora kuba yayatumwe n’igihugu runaka cyangwa ayashaka mu nyungu ze bwite.

3. Grey hat

Uyu ni umuhacher uri hagati ya White hat na black hat, we icyo akora yinjira muri system runaka yamara kugeramo akareba ikibazo kiri muri system nyuma akabyereka nyirabyo cyangwa ntabyerekane ariko nta burenganzira aba afite akenshi ababikora baba bigira ngo biyirekane cyangwa bamenyekane nk'abanyabwenge.

4. Script kiddies

Aba ni aba Hackers wakwita nk'abiyemezi kuko bo nta bumenyi buhambaye baba bafite kuri mudasobwa kuko akenshi iyo barimo gukora aka kazi bakoresha system zubatwe n'abandi. Akenshi baba bagamije kwiyemera cyangwa kwerekana ko bazi ibintu byinshi mu ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa, gusa hari igihe bajya babasha kwinjira muri systems bakoresheje ubumenyi bucye baba bafite.

5. Hacktivist

Aba ni abahakazi baba bafite umugambi wo gukwirakwiza ikintu runaka bifashishije ikoranabuhanga ry mudasobwa urugero navuga ninko gushaka guteza impinduka muri politiki iki gihe bashobora gukwirakwiza ubutumwa cyangwa bakagira systems zimwe na zimwe bajyenda bahagarika.

6. Phreake

Uyu ni umu Hacker uba ufite ubudahangarwa bwo kwinjira muri systems y'imikorere ya telefone. Urugero ashobora kwica zimwe mu nzira zikoreshwa n’ibigo by’itumanaho akaba yagira abantu aha uburenganzira bwo guhamagara ku buntu. Gusa ku rundi ruhande ashobora no kurinda umutekano w’imiyoboro y’itumanaho.

D. Ubwoko bw’ibitero by’ikoranabuhanga bikunze kugabwa ku bantu

1. Malware

Iki gitero akenshi kiza mu magambo bakubwira ko mudasobwa cyangwa telefone yawe ifite ikibazo bagahita baguha umurongo cyangwa umuyoboro (link) wayikoraho bagahita bakwereka ahantu ushyiramo imyirondoro yawe byarangira bo intego baba bayigezeho bahita batangira kumenya ibyawe byose.

2. Phishing

Iki gitero ni cyo gikunzwe gufata abantu benshi kuko cyo bakoresha ubutumwa buza kuri Email y'umuntu bamubwira ko hari nk’ibihembo yatsindiye cyangwa ikindi kintu hanyuma bakaguha ahantu unyura ngo ubone ibyawe cyangwa wuzuza umwirondoro wabikora ubwo bakaba batangiye urugamba rwo kukwinjirira. Ibindi bitero ni SQL Injection Attack, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), Denial-of-Service (DoS), Session Hijacking, Man-in-the-Middle Attacks na Credential Reuse

D. Uko wakwirinda kwinjirirwa na ba rushimusi mu ikoranabuhanga (hackers)

Ibi inzobere mu rusisiro rw’ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa rivuga ko ari nk'inzozi kwizera ko mudasobwa yawe irinzwe 100% kandi uyikoresha kuri murandasi! Gusa bavuga ko uko byagenda kose ugomba kugerageza uko ushoboye ukagenda wirinda ibitero bimwe na bimwe.

Ingingo 5 zagufasha kujya kure y’ibyago byo kwinjirirwa

1. Irinde gufungura Email utazi aho iturutse

2. Kora ibishoboka byose ukoreshe Password ikomeye

3. Mu gihe uri gukoresha murandasi rusange irinde kwinjira mu mabanga bwite yawe kuko aha hari ibyago byinshi cyane

4. Koresha Fido (Fast Identity Online), iyi ni system ikoreshwa mu kurinda password

5. Hindura password ukoresha ku rubuga urwo ari rwo rwose nibura buri nyuma y’ibyumweru 4 (ukwezi)

Sources: guru99.com, netwrix.com, whatismyipaddress.com na myheritage.com







IBITECYEREZO

  • Placide1 week ago
    mukomere! muzatubwire imikorere ya internet.


Bahaus

Inyarwanda BACKGROUND