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Service Economy ni iki? Itandukaniye he n’ubundi bucuruzi? Ikorwamo gute? Ese mu Rwanda ikorwa ite?

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:31/08/2019 18:15
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Mu bucuruzi habamo ingeri zitandukanye ibicuruzwa bifatika ndetse n’ibidafatika. Service Economy iba mu bicuruzwa tugura ariko bidafatika kandi biri mu biganje mu guha amafaranga menshi abantu. Muri iyi nkuru tugiye kurebera hamwe uko Services Economy ikorwa, inyungu zayo ndetse n’uburyo isi muri rusange iyikoresha.



Serivice Economy muri rusange ni ubukungu bushingiye ku bicuruzwa bidafatika urugero nk'iyo dutanze amafaranga bakadutwara mu mudoka batuvana ahantu hamwe tukajya ahandi cyangwa se kugura amakarita yo gukoresha duhamagara cyangwa kugura murandasi. Iki gihe ubucuruzi buba burimo gukorwa ni bwo bwitwa “Service Economy”, naho iyo ugiye kugura ifu y’ibigori bakayishyira mu mufuka ni byo byitwa “Manufactures Services”.

Services economy ni ubucuruzi bwafashe umurindi ahagana mu 1960 ubwo ikoranabuhanga rirangajwe imbere na mudasobwa ndetse na murandasi ryatangiraga gufata intera. Ahagana mu 1968 ni bwo inzobere mu bukungu” Victor R. Fuchs” yabonye ubukungu buri kugana mu bicuruzwa bidatwarwa burundu nk'uko twabibonye nk'iyo uguze umunyenga mu modoka ikuvana ahantu ukajya ahandi nyiri imodoka arayigumana ukamuha amafaranga ubutaha wazagaruka ukamuha ayandi.

Iyi nzobere yarabibonye niko gutangira kubyita “Services economy” ndetse uyu mugabo yemeza ko ubu bwoko bw’ubucuruzi bwatangiriye muri Amerika, dore ko iyo uvuze Services economy ababizi neza bahita bumva ubucuruzi bwose bugezweho (Digital business). Amakuru ducyesha Focus-economics.com batubwira ko Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika arizo zikora ubu bucuruzi cyane kurusha ibihugu byose ku isi ndetse ikaba ari nayo ikize ku isi yose.

Ese Services economy ikorwa ite? Ikorwa nande? Ayikora gute?

Services economy ikorwa hagati y’abantu babiri aribo ugurisha ndetse n’ugura, iki gihe ugurisha aba afite igicuruzwa ariko kiza ari nk’igisubizo kuri wa wundi ugura. Akenshi ibi bicuruzwa byo muri Service economy biba bidafatika urugero niba waguze itike cyangwa wateze Tax Voiture iki gihe usibye kuba wavuye ahantu hamwe ukajya ahandi nta muntu uzaza ngo umwereke igicuruzwa watanzeho amafaranga yawe cyangwa ngo akubone ukikoreye nk'uko tubona umuntu yikoreye agafuka k'umuceri. Ikindi nujya kwa Muganga bakagusuzuma ubundi bakakwandikira imiti ujya kugura muri Pharmacy, nuhura n’umuntu akakubaza icyo watanzeho amafaranga ntabwo uzaba ugifite, aha icyabaye ni uko waguze serivise yo kugupima, nyiri iyi serivise akazana igisubizo ku kibazo wari ufite.

Mu kugura serivise akenshi hari igihe uba usabwa kujya wishyura buri kwezi cyangwa ugura uko ayo wishyuye yashizemo. Urugero niba uguze ipaki ya murandasi (internet) iki gihe nugura iy'ukwezi nishira bizagusaba kugura indi ariko nugura iy'amafaranga magana atanu bakakubwira ko baguhaye 500MB zikoreshwa icyumweru kimwe, nuzikoresha nabi zizashira vuba bahite bagusaba kugura indi, nutayigura ntuzongera kubona uko ukora gahunda zawe.

Mu gukoresha ubu buryo bw’ubukungu buzwi nka “Services economy” akenshi haba higanjemo ikoranabuhanga rihambaye. Ni kenshi twibaza ukuntu MTN imenya uko dukoresha murandasi tuba twaguze cyangwa kumenya uko amanite twaguze yashizemo cyangwa iyo dushyizemo amafaranga babimenya gute? Ni ukuvuga ikigo cy’ikoranabuhanga icyo ari cyose baba bafite inzobere mu ikoranabuhanga zigenzura ibintu byose bakoresheje indimi zitandukanye za mudasobwa arizo ziba zigenga byose.

Urugero niba MTN barakoze system yo gushyiramo amanite baba bafite porogaramu zikoreshwa na 'Algorithms' irangajwe imbere na 'Probability' mu gukora ino mibare twe tubona iyo tuguze ikarita yo guhamagara kuko hatabayemo ubuhanga wajya utekereza imibare ushatse ukabona ikarita gusa ntibyashoboka kubera ikoranabuhanga rihambaye riba riri inyuma y'iyi serivise, ibi ni nako bigenda ku bigo bicuruza abonoma z'amateleviziyo atandukanye.

Service Economy ikorwa gute muri Afrika?

Services economy ni ubucuruzi bugezweho bw’ikinyejana cya 21. Ubu bucuruzi burangaje mu isi yose cyane cyane mu bihugu byateye imbere. Ibihugu hafi ya byose byo muri Afrika biracyari mu nzira y’iterambere, ubu buryo ntiburazamuka buracyari hagati na hagati, gusa ibihugu bya Afrika hafi ya byose biri mu nzira y’iterambere, Services economies zateye imbere ni icungamali, uburezi, ubuvuzi, ubukeragendo n'ikoranabuhanga. Umunsi ku wundi ubu bucuruzi bugezweho bukaba n’inkingi ya mwamba y’ubukungu bw’ikinyejana cya 21, kuri uyu mugabane uri gusa nuwihuta mu bijyanye n’ubucuruzi ndetse n'ikoranabuhanga rigezweho ubu urakataje mu kwiyubaka.

Ibihugu 3 birusha ibindi gukora Service Economy muri Afrika n'ibyo bikora

1.       Nigeria

Nigeria ni igihugu cyateye imbere mu burezi, ubuvuzi ndetse n'itumanaho rigerwezo dore ko iki gihugu mu ngeri zitandukanye gifatwa nk'inyenyeri ya Afrika muri rusange. Ibi ni nabyo bifasha iki gihugu kuza ku isonga ku mugabane mu kugira ubukungu buri hejuri. Ibigo bitanga Services economy bikomeye harimo nka MTN Nigeria na Zenith Bank. Iki gihugu kiri no mu bibyaza umusaruro umuziki dore ko abahanzi bo muri iki gihugu bamaze kugera ku ruhando rw’isi yose kandi bakagira n'amabwiriza akomeye agenga imikorere yawo mu rwego rwo guteza imbere umuco w'iki gihugu binyuze mu bihangano byabo, nabyo bifasha iki gihugu kuba igihanganye. 

2.       South Africa

Igihugu cya Afrika y'Epfo kiza ku mwanya wa kabiri bitewe n'ibikorwa by'iterambere ifite bishingiye kuri serivise harimo ama Banki akomeye, ibigo by’itumanaho bikomeye, ubuvuzi ndetse n'uburezi buri ku rwego rwo hejuru dore ko muri kaminuza zikomeye muri Afrika yafi ya zose ni iz'iki gihugu.

3.       Egypt

      Ubukungu bushingiye kuri service mu gihugu cya Egypt ahanini kibicyesha amateka ari muri iki gihugu bituma cyakira abakerarugendo batagira ingano, kandi bose bakizanira amafaranga menshi. Urugero rw’igituma Service economy mu gihugu cya Egypt iri mu bifite amateka ashingiye kuri za pyramid zihari zisurwa na benshi hakiyongera n'andi mateka ashingiye ku myemerere. Ibi byose bituma iki gihugu kiza ku isonga mu bifite serivise nyinshi.

    Services Economies nini mu Rwanda ni izihe? Zikorwa na nde? Zikorana na bande?

Ifoto y'umujyi wa Kigali 


Mu Rwanda Services economy ziganje ni ibigo by’itumanaho ari byo MTN na Airtel, ibigo bitwara abantu ari byo Horizon Express, Volcano Express, Virunga, East African Bus, Impala n’izindi nyinshi, ibigo bicuruza murandasi birangajwe imbere na Mango Telecom, ibigo by’ubuvuzi byiganjemo ibigo bya leta, ibigo by'amashuli nabyo byiganjemo ibya leta urugeru kaminuza y’u Rwanda n'ikigo cy'ingendo z'indege zijyana zinavana abantu mu mahanga (RwandAir). Ubukerarugendo buri ku isonga ku ruhando rw'amahanga burangajwe imbere n’ibyiza bitatse u Rwanda urugero ibirunga birimo ingagi zisurwa na benshi ndetse na Parike nka Kagera ndetse na Nyungwe. Uretse ubukerarugendo buba bufite abakiriya b'abanyamahanga ibindi bigo byose abakiriya babyo hafi ya bose ni abanyarwanda.  

 Ese umucuruzi usanzwe ni gute yakoresha Services economy? Kubera iki?

Muri iyi minsi ubucuruzi butanga services buraganje ndetse n’abacuruzi benshi batangiye gusobanukirwa imikorere yabwo, urugero ku mucuruzi usanzwe ucuruza ibicuruzwa twakwita ibifatika, akeneye gushora muri ubu bucuruzi kuko buroroshye kandi bwunguka vuba kandi ntibuhomba. Urugero niba umucuruzi akeneye services urugero ni nk'iyo umucuruzi ashaka ubujyanama ku bijyanye n'ibikorwa bye agomba gushaka inzobere mu bijyane n’icungamali ndetse n’imikorere y’ubucuruzi kugira ngo bamufashe abashe kunguka. Aha nabikora azaba aguze services yo guhabwa inama zimufasha gutera imbere.

 Indi services abacuruzi mw’iyiminsi batari kw’itaho iri no kuba intandaro y’ibihombo bya hato nahato nuko batari  kwamamaza ibikorwa byabo nyamara iyi ni services bakagombye gukora bifashishije ibitangazamakuru bitandukanye.  

Ibyiza bya Services Economies

-Service economy ni ubucuruzi bukorwa hatagombye kugira ububiko buhambaye (stocks) bivuze ko ibicuruzwa byabwo bitajya bibora cyangwa ngo byangirike. Urugero abantu baramutse bahagaritse kugura amanite yo guhamagara ntabwo bizabateza ikibazo nk'umuntu ufite ibigega by’ibigori kuko byo bizabora ariko amanite ntacyo azaba.

-Iyi nzira njyabukire ntabwo isaba abakozi benshi ahubwo isaba bacye binzobere. 

-Serivise akenshi ntabwo zijya zishira usibye kuba hapfa uburyo bukoreshwa mu kuzigeza ku bakiriya.

-Akenshi Service economy itanga imisoro micye ugereranije n’ibindi bicuruzwa bikorerwa mu nganda.

-Abakiriya bahora babona udushya umunsi ku wundi

-Ibigo bikora ubu bucuruzi bibona inyungu nyinshi kandi mu gihe gito uregero rufatika ni uko hafi y'abakire bose bari kuri uyu mugabane bose bakora ubu bucuruzi.

-Nta busambo bwa hato na hato kubera ubwenge bwinshi inzira zubatse ubu bucuruzi ziba zubakanye.

-Service economy ni inzira igana ku bukungu kandi bigafata igihe gito mu gihe byakoranywe ubushishozi bikaba akarusho iyo hiyongeyeho ikoranabuhanga.

Sources: odi.org, coevolving.com na oecd.org








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