Inyarwanda art Studio
Kigali

Kuva kuri Radiyo yuzuraga icyumba kugeza kuri 'Streaming services',..Byinshi ku iterambere ry'inzira dukoresha twumva imiziki

Yanditswe na: Eric Misigaro
Taliki:5/07/2019 7:53
0

Umuziki watangiye kumvwa bakoresha igisa na Radiyo cyaterekwaga mu cyumba kikuzura, nticyaterurwa. None umuntu ageze aho atwara ibihumbi n'ibihumbi by'indirimbo mu mufuka w'umyenda yambaye. Muri iyi nkuru yacu tugiye kurebera hamwe uko byagiye bihinduka kuva Thomas Edison yavumbura Phonography mu 1877 kugeza kuri 'Streaming service' iri ku isonga.



Imyaka igera ku 150 irirenze havumbuwe igikoresho cyakoreshwaga mu kumva umuziki cyakozwe na Thomas Edison, byari bigoye kumva umuziki hambere kuko kenshi byatangiye hakoreshwa icyari mu ishusho ya 'Microphone' cyamenyekanye nka Phonograph icyo cyakoraga kwari uku recording indirimbo ukaba ari nacyo ukoresha uyumva inshuro imwe gusa, bamwe mu batari bishoboye byari bigoye bararirimbaga bakiyumva.

Tutagiye kure no mu myaka micye ishize hano mu Rwanda hakoreshwaga igikoresho kitwaga Plac aho cyashyirwaga mu nyakiramajwi yitwaga cassette (cassette player). Aha byabaga bigoye guhindura indirimbo cyangwa kuyihutisha. Icyakorwaga wafataga Plac (cassette) ukayikura muri cassette (cassette player) ugafata agati cyangwa ikaramu ukayikoresha ukaraga umugozi wabaga uri muri iyi plac (cassette player) yakoreshwaga muri cassete. Hanyuma ukayisubizamo ugakina indirimbo ukumva aho bigeze rimwe na rimwe wasangaga hari n'umuntu wafashe ikaramu akagenda yandika aho indimbo imwe itangirira n'aho indi itangirira.

Image result for images of cassettes player

Ifoto ya cassette benshi bazi nka plac

Iki kitwaga plac (cassette) ubusanzwe nicyo cassete, ubundi icyo bitaga cassete kizwi nka cassette player. Iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga ryavanye umuziki ku rwego rwo hasi riwugeza mu bicu, aho ubu dufata ibihumbi by'indirimbo tukazitwara ku matelefone. Ibi nabyo muri ino minsi biri gusa nibirangira bisimbuwe no kumvira umiziki kuri murandasi (Internet) bizwi nka streaming services. Iyi nzira yo kumva imiziki ntabwo iragera ku rwego rwo hejuru cyane cyane muri Afrika iri hasi, gusa muri Amerika ndetse n'iburayi iranganje nta muntu ukirirwa abika indirimbo kuri mashine (computer) cyangwa kuri telefone ngendanwa.

Tugiye kurebera hamwe uko ibikoresho byakoreshwaga mu kumva imiziki byagiye bisimburanwa.

1. Phonograph


Phonograph yakozwe bwa mbere na Edson Thomas muri 1877, ubu ni ubwoko by'igikoresho cyakoreshejwe bwa mbere mu kumva umuziki hifashishijwe igisa n'icyuma kiri electronic, aho wabikaga amajwi y'umuziki inshuro imwe gusa. Ni cyo gikoresho cyakoreshejwe bwa mbere mu kubika amajwi uzi ko uri buze kumva ayo wabitse. Iyi yabaye intangiriro y'ivugururwa ry'inzira zikoreshwa mu kumva umuziki magingo aya.

2. Graphophone


Graphophone ni igikoresho cyaje gisimbura Phonography aho cyaje ari ivugurwa rya Phonography cyavumbuwe na Alexander Graham Bell muri 1886 yifashishije ikoranabuhanga rya Phonograph ryari ryakozwe na Thomas Edison. Graphophone yo ntabwo yakina indirimbo inshuro imwe gusa ahubwo yabashaga gukina indirimbo inshuro zirenze imwe.

3. Gramophone


Gramophone yakozwe na Emile Berliner mu mwaka wa 1888, ije kugwa mu ntege Graphophone. Yaje ikoreshwa mu buryo bwisumbuye ku bwo Graphophone yakoreshaga. Iki gikoresho ni nacyo kitiririwe ibihembo by’ibyamamare muri muzika ya Amerika bizwi nka Grammy Awards (Gramophone Awards as originally name).

4. Radio


Muri 1940 Radiyo yaje isimbura inzira zose aho yakoreshwaga mu kuvuga amakuru ndetse n'ibiganiro by'abanyapolitike byarangira hagakinwa imiziki gusa. Iyi ni yo nzira isa n'iya mbere mu itangira ry'imwidagaduro mu mubijyanye n'imiziki. Iki gihe byasaga nk'ibigoye kuko byakorwaga amasaha 3-4 ku munsi gusa. Iyi ntabwo yabashaga guterurwa aho yabaga iteretse ku wabaga ari kuyikoresha kenshi wasangaga hakoranye abantu benshi bari kuyikoresha bumvira hamwe.

5. Jukeboxes

Jukeboxes yaje ari nk’igisubizo ahagana mu 1950 ni bwo mu tubari ndetse no muri za resitora iki gikoresho cyari kiganje kuko cyo cyaje gifite ubushobozi bwo gukina umuziki hanakozwe urutonde rw'izikinewe bizwi nka Playlists ikaba yarakoraga mu buryo bwa MP3 (MP3 format).

6. 8-Track


8-Track yavumbuwe na Bell Lear mu mwaka 1964, iyi yamamaye muri Amerika ndetse no mu bindi bihugu nka Canada ndetse n'u Bwongereza ahagana hagati mu 1960-1980. Ikaba yaraje gusimburwa na cassette player.

7. Cassette player

Cassette yashyizwe ku mugaragaro bwa mbere n'uruganda rwa Phillips ku wa 30 Kanama 1963 mu mujyi wa Hasselt mu Bubiligi, igera muri Amerika muri 1964. Yaje ije kugwa mu ntege 8-track streo, byaje no kugerwaho dore ko New York times mu 1981 yatangaje ko Cassette player aricyo gikoresho cyari gikunzwe cyane ku isi mu kumva umuziki. Cassette yaje iri mu ishusho y'inyakiramajwi ikaba yarakoreshwagamo aka gakoresho kari kazwi nka plac, aho yabaga iriho indirimbo zitandukanye nubwo bitari byoroshye kuyikoresha kuko guhindura cyangwa gusubiza inyuma indirimbo kari akazi katari koroshye. Iyi yaraje iba icyamamare kuko buri wese uyifite yabaga yemerewe kwifata amajwi ndetse nyuma akaza kumva ibyo yabaga yabitse kuri ya cassett e(plac). Gusa iyi nta nyakiramajwi (FM/AM) yagiraga.

8. Boombox


Boombox yatangiye gukoreshwa ahagana mu 1985 iza ari nka cassette player ivuguruye kuko yaje ijya kumera nka yo gusa yo yari ifite n'inyakiramajwi (FM radio) kandi igakora nk'ibyo cassette player yakora byose bikongeraho ko yo yari ifite imyanya ibiri ijyamo ka gakoresho kamenyekanye nka plac mu Rwanda n'ubwo izina ryako nyakuri ari cassette. Boombox ikaba ari nayo ifatwa nk'intwaro yakoreshwejwe mu guteza imbere Hiphop muri Amerika kuko yaraje itangira kujya ikoreshwa cyane cyane n'urubyiruko rwari rwiganjemo urw'Abirabura. Kenshi na kenshi uru rubyiruko rwahuriraga ku muhanda bamwe babyina abandi bifata amajwi y'uruhurirane rw'ibitekerezo bityo Hiphop iza kuba injyana iyoboye isi mu ziri gukoreshwa dore ko atari ibanga abakora iyi njyana ari bo banyamuziki bafite agatubutse muri iyi si ya Nyagasani.

9. Walkman


Walkman yaje ari igisubizo. Iki gikoresho cyakozwe n'uruganda rwa Sony cyaje kimeze nka Cassette player, gusa yari yisumbuyeho kuko byari byoroshye kuyigendana ndetse no kuyikoresha aho wabashaga guhinduranya indirimbo byoroshye. Nkuko tubikesha urubuga rwa Sony, Walkman ya mbere yakozwe muri 1979 nubwo yaje kwamamara bitinzeho gato. Kugira ngo yamamare Sony yohereje abakozi bayo ku mihanda yo mu Buyapani bagenda babwira buri muntu ibijyanye n'iki gikoresho, ibyaje kugitiza umurindi mu kugurwa cyane, aha ni naho Sony yatangiye gusohora telefone ngendanwa zakinaga umuziki.

10. Compact discs (CDs)


CDS zatangiye gukoreshwa nyuma ya Walkman aho CDs zari zifite ubushobozi bwo gukina indirimbo iminota 74 yose, nazo zakoze akazi kanini mu iterambere ry'umuziki. CDs zaje ahagana mu 1979 ku gitekerezo cya Gizmodo, gitezwa imbere n'ibigo bibiri aribyo Philips na Sony. Ibi bigo byihuje bishaka kugera ku gikoresho cyoroshye gutwarwa ndetse no kubikwa. Mu minsi ishize ni bwo umugabo wamamaye hano mu Rwanda binyuze mu kuba Manager w'abahanzi benshi, Muyoboke Alex yatangarije Inyarwanda.com ko yinjiye mu byerekeye n'uruganda rwa muzika, acuruza CDs. Twibuke ko nta yindi nzira yo gucuruza imiziki yari ihari usibye gukoresha CDs. Magingo aya ziracyakoreshwa ahantu henshi, gusa Download na Streaming zayikubise inshuro. CD ya mbere yaguzwe 1000$ nk'uko tubikesha Business insider aho bavuze ko ayo madorali ajya kungana na 2600$ y'uyu munsi. Ntabwo yagurwaga n'ubonetse wese gusa byaje kumanuka bigera ku 200$ ahagana mu 1984.

11. Napster


Napster ni yo ntangiriro yo gutangira guhanahana imiziki hifashishijwe murandasi (Internet) yamamaye nka P2P (Peer to Peer) bivuze kugabana cyangwa guhana babiri kuri babiri. Imiziki yafatwaga yabaga iri mu buryo bwa Mp3 (mp3 format).

12. Music player (iPod): Classic, Mini, Nano, Shuffle, na Touch screen

Muri 2001 ni bwo Steven Job washinze ikigo cya Apple yakoze iPod ya mbere igisohorwa yagurwaga agera kuri 399$. Iyi yari ifite ubushobozi bwo kubika indirimbo 1000. Ubu buryo ni bwo buri gukoreshwa na benshi ku isi cyane cyane muri Afrika aho benshi ubu inzira zabo zo kumva imiziki bari gukoresha telefone bumva imiziki ibitse mu matelephone akeshi Smartphone ndetse no muri za mudasobwa. Gusa mu bihugu byateye imbere bari kugenda barenga uru rwego rwo kuzuza ibihumbi n'ibihumbi by'indirimbo ku ma telephone yabo ahubwo bakazumvira kuri murandasi bidasabye kuzitunga aho ari nabyo biha amaronko abanyamuziki binatuma batera imbere bikabatiza umurindi wo gukora indirimbo nziza.

13. YouTube, internet radio services nka Pandora, na streaming services harimo Apple Music, Tidal na Spotify.


Ubu buryo ni bwo buri gukoreshwa cyane cyane mu bihugu byateye imbere nka Amerika, Canada ndetse no mu Bwongereza binaha akayabo ba nyiri bino bigo bicururiza abahanzi indirimbo zabo kuko ubu buryo hafi ya bwose kubukoresha bisaba kwishyura, akaba ari nayo mpamvu ba nyiri ibihangano nabo babonamo amafaranga menshi. Gusa muri Afrika hari ibihugu bisa n'ibyatangiye kubukoresha nka Nigeria na South Africa. Mu karere ka Afrika y'Iburasirazuba, Tanzania na Kenya byo biracyari gushakisha ariko byaratangiye. Ibigo bihigitse ibindi muri 'Streaming services' harimo Spotify, Pandora, Apple music, Google music player n'ibindi.

Mu Rwanda ubu buryo benshi ntabwo babuzi usibye abakunzi b'umuziki ndetse na benshi mu bahanzi ntabwo bazi. Ikigo cy'itumanaho cya MTN ni cyo cyagerageje kubuzana bukaba buzwi nka MTN Play, gusa ntabwo abantu benshi bari basobanukirwa imikorere yabwo. Ku ruhande rwa Youtube nabwo ni mwe mu nzira ziri kubyazwa amafaranga n'abazi imikorere yabwo kuko nabwo ari uburyo bukoreshwa mu kumva indirimbo cyangwa kuzireba. Ibi nabyo bituma nyiri indirimbo, iyo indirimbo irebwe bamwishyura, gusa kenshi batangira kwishyura mu gihe indirimbo yagejeje nibura abantu 1000 bayirebye.

Src: Pulselive.com, Theverge.com, New york times








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